Peter Gottschalk offers a compelling study of how, through the British implementation of scientific taxonomy in the subcontinent, Britons and Indians identified an inherent divide between mutually antagonistic religious communities. England's ascent to power coincided with the rise of empirical science as an authoritative way of knowing not only the natural world, but the human one as well. The British scientific passion for classification, combined with the Christian impulse to differentiate people according to religion, led to a designation of Indians as either Hindu or Muslim according to rigidly defined criteria that paralleled classification in botanical and zoological taxonomies. Through an historical and ethnographic study of the north Indian village of Chainpur, Gottschalk shows that the Britons' presumed categories did not necessarily reflect the Indians' concepts of their own identities, though many Indians came to embrace this scientism and gradually accepted the categories the British instituted through projects like the Census of India, the Archaeological Survey of India, and the India Museum. Today's propogators of Hindu-Muslim violence often cite scientistic formulations of difference that descend directly from the categories introduced by imperial Britain. Religion, Science, and Empire will be a valuable resource to anyone interested in the colonial and postcolonial history of religion in India.
Religion, Science, and Empire will be a valuable resource to anyone interested in the colonial and postcolonial history of religion in India.
Author: Peter Gottschalk
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
Investigates the complex social processes involved in the introduction and institutionalization of Western science in colonial India.
Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India Zaheer Baber ... by
a number of authors in the later Vedic period.65 Religion and Astronomy in
Ancient India As in the case of mathematics, developments in astronomy were
Author: Zaheer Baber
Publisher: SUNY Press
Grant illuminates how today's scientific culture originated with the religious thinkers of the Middle Ages.
Chapter 8 Relations between Science and Religion in the Byzantine Empire , the
World of Islam , and the Latin West We have now described in detail the long
history of the relations between science and religion as it developed in Latin ...
Author: Edward Grant
Publisher: JHU Press
How is knowledge about religion and religions produced, and how is that knowledge authenticated and circulated? David Chidester seeks to answer these questions in Empire of Religion, documenting and analyzing the emergence of a science of comparative religion in Great Britain during the second half of the nineteenth century and its complex relations to the colonial situation in southern Africa. In the process, Chidester provides a counterhistory of the academic study of religion, an alternative to standard accounts that have failed to link the field of comparative religion with either the power relations or the historical contingencies of the imperial project. In developing a material history of the study of religion, Chidester documents the importance of African religion, the persistence of the divide between savagery and civilization, and the salience of mediations—imperial, colonial, and indigenous—in which knowledge about religions was produced. He then identifies the recurrence of these mediations in a number of case studies, including Friedrich Max Müller’s dependence on colonial experts, H. Rider Haggard and John Buchan’s fictional accounts of African religion, and W. E. B. Du Bois’s studies of African religion. By reclaiming these theorists for this history, Chidester shows that race, rather than theology, was formative in the emerging study of religion in Europe and North America. Sure to be controversial, Empire of Religion is a major contribution to the field of comparative religious studies.
In principle, these theorists distinguished their methods of inquiry from theology
while retaining the term religion for science. As we will see, there were different
ways of adjudicating the relations between religion and science in imperial ...
Author: David Chidester
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Where are the benefices, the employment, the offices of trustand dignity, that
require ability and science and the hopes of the young student?” The increasing
influence of religious dogma and superstition on Indian society was another
Author: National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (India)
Publisher: South Asia Books
The past quarter-century has seen an explosion of interest in the history of science and religion. But all too often the scholars writing it have focused their attention almost exclusively on the Christian experience, with only passing reference to other traditions of both science and faith. At a time when religious ignorance and misunderstanding have lethal consequences, such provincialism must be avoided and, in this pioneering effort to explore the historical relations of what we now call "science" and "religion," the authors go beyond the Abrahamic traditions to examine the way nature has been understood and manipulated in regions as diverse as ancient China, India, and sub-Saharan Africa. Science and Religion around the World also provides authoritative discussions of science in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- as well as an exploration of the relationship between science and the loss of religious beliefs. The narratives included in this book demonstrate the value of plural perspectives and of the importance of location for the construction and perception of science-religion relations.
G. Venkataraman, “The Spirit of a Giant,” Current Science 75 (1998): 1085–94;
Robert S. Anderson, Building Scientific ... Ramanujan: The Man and the
Mathematician (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1967); Baber, Science of
Author: John Hedley Brooke
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keshab Chandra Sen (1838-84) was one of the most powerful and controversial figures in nineteenth-century Bengal. A religious leader and social reformer, his universalist interpretation of Hinduism found mass appeal in India, and generated considerable interest in Britain. His ideas on British imperial rule, religion and spirituality, global history, universalism and modernity were all influential, and his visit to England made him a celebrity. Many Britons regarded him as a prophet of world-historical significance. Keshab was the subject of extreme adulation and vehement criticism. Accounts tell of large crowds prostrating themselves before him, believing him to be an avatar. Yet he died with relatively few followers, his reputation in both India and Britain largely ruined. As a representative of India, Keshab became emblematic of broad concerns regarding Hinduism and Christianity, science and faith, India and the British Empire. This innovative study explores the transnational historical forces that shaped Keshab's life and work. It offers an alternative religious history of empire, characterized by intercultural dialogue and religious syncretism. A fascinating and often tragic portrait of Keshab's experience of the imperial world, and the ways in which he carried meaning for his contemporaries.
Chidester, Empire of Religion, p. 4. Ibid. For an overview of the historiography,
see Gottschalk, Peter, Religion, Science, and Empire. Classifying Hindu and
Islam in British India (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013). For a fascinating
Author: John Stevens
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The only book to analyse the general relationships between Protestant missions and imperial Expansion in modern British history to 1914. A monumental book that draws extensively on the enormous range of literature represented by imperial history, religious history, and areas studies from the Far East to the Caribbean.
In the fifty years since the appearance of Vincent Harlow's first volume on the
reshaping of Britain's empire after the Seven ... Expanding geographical
awareness was combined with a burgeoning scientific and travel literature , the
growth of ...
Author: Andrew Porter
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Written by distinguished historians of science and religion, the thirty essays in this volume survey the relationship of Western religious traditions to science from the beginning of the Christian era to the late twentieth century. This wide-ranging collection also introduces a variety of approaches to understanding their intersection, suggesting a model not of inalterable conflict, but of complex interaction. Tracing the rise of science from its birth in the medieval West through the scientific revolution, the contributors describe major shifts that were marked by discoveries such as those of Copernicus, Galileo, and Isaac Newton and the Catholic and Protestant reactions to them. They assess changes in scientific understanding brought about by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century transformations in geology, cosmology, and biology, together with the responses of both mainstream religious groups and such newer movements as evangelicalism and fundamentalism. The book also treats the theological implications of contemporary science and evaluates recent approaches such as environmentalism, gender studies, social construction, and postmodernism, which are at the center of current debates in the historiography, understanding, and application of science. Contributors: Colin A. Russell, David B. Wilson, Edward Grant, David C. Lindberg, Alnoor Dhanani, Owen Gingerich, Richard J. Blackwell, Edward B. Davis, Michael P. Winship, John Henry, Margaret J. Osler, Richard S. Westfall, John Hedley Brooke, Nicolaas A. Rupke, Peter M. Hess, James Moore, Peter J. Bowler, Ronald L. Numbers, Steven J. Harris, Mark A. Noll, Edward J. Larson, Richard Olson, Craig Sean McConnell, Robin Collins, William A. Dembski, David N. Livingstone, Sara Miles, and Stephen P. Weldon.
Thus, pious religious scholars declined Ummayad appointment to judicial
positions. However ... This large empire, with its multiethnic, multifaith, and
multinational populations and retaining preconquest administrative structures,
was becoming ...
Author: Gary B. Ferngren
Publisher: JHU Press
sweep away the souls of those who have faith , even if equal only to a grain of
mustard - seed , so that the world shall be ... rulers of the Saracen Empire were
called Caliphs , and resided at Bagdad , a splendid city which they built on the
Author: James Hunter
Category: World history
As the result of this conflict , the doctrine of the unity of God was established in
the greater part of the Roman Empire . — The cultivation of science was restored
, and Christendom lost many of her most illustrious capitals , as Alexandria ...
Author: John William Draper
Category: Religion and science
The two most underrated factors in the Empire were science and religion .
Science was making the whole earth habitable by white men . In 1903 the death -
rate in West Africa was 20 : 6 per thousand ; in 1912 the ratio had fallen to 12 : 4 .
Provides an expansion of the first four volumes, containing both specially written essays and a related compilation of primary sources, drawn from the writings of the day. The text explores the wider context of religion in Victorian Britain, both in relation to the development of the Empire and its consequences. The introduction sets the scene and also provides an overview of scholarship on Victorian religion in the years since the first four volumes were published in 1988.
The Science of Language has taught us that there is order and wisdom in all
languages, and even the most degraded jargons contain the ruins of former
greatness and beauty. The Science of Religion, I hope, will produce a similar
change in ...
Author: Gerald Parsons
Publisher: Manchester University Press
I hope Dr. Draper will grant that there was very little indeed of the Religion of
Christ visible in the policy of the Roman Empire and not very much in the policy of
the Papacy . That the Christian religion is not incompatible with science , even in
Author: Ernst Faber
A look at what made Alexander a brilliant military tactician and a charismatic leader. It also explores what the Eastern world learned through contact with Alexander and what Alexander brought the West from the Persian Empire.
As in other areas, much more is known about Greek science than about science
in the Persian Empire. ... This rationalism, which advocated mastery of a subject
through the method of inquiry, even challenged the Greeks' traditional religious ...
Author: Debra Skelton
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
Religion in Science Fiction investigates the history of the representations of religion in science fiction literature. Space travel, futuristic societies, and non-human cultures are traditional themes in science fiction. Speculating on the societal impacts of as-yet-undiscovered technologies is, after all, one of the distinguishing characteristics of science fiction literature. A more surprising theme may be a parallel exploration of religion: its institutional nature, social functions, and the tensions between religious and scientific worldviews. Steven Hrotic investigates the representations of religion in 19th century proto-science fiction, and genre science fiction from the 1920s through the end of the century. Taken together, he argues that these stories tell an overarching story-a 'metanarrative'-of an evolving respect for religion, paralleling a decline in the belief that science will lead us to an ideal (and religion-free) future. Science fiction's metanarrative represents more than simply a shift in popular perceptions of religion: it also serves as a model for cognitive anthropology, providing new insights into how groups and identities form in a globalized world, and into how crucial a role narratives may play. Ironically, this same perspective suggests that science fiction, as it was in the 20th century, may no longer exist.
(2010). Available at: http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=sLuDOEuwwso Nicholls,
P. (1977). 1975: The year in science fiction, or let's hear it for the decline and fall
of the science fiction empire! In U. K. Le Guin (Ed.), Nebula Award stories eleven
Author: Steven Hrotic
Publisher: A&C Black
The idea of an inevitable conflict between science and religion was decisively challenged by John Hedley Brooke in his classic Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge, 1991). Almost two decades on, Science and Religion: New Historical Perspectives revisits this argument and asks how historians can now impose order on the complex and contingent histories of religious engagements with science. Bringing together leading scholars, this volume explores the history and changing meanings of the categories 'science' and 'religion'; the role of publishing and education in forging and spreading ideas; the connection between knowledge, power and intellectual imperialism; and the reasons for the confrontation between evolution and creationism among American Christians and in the Islamic world. A major contribution to the historiography of science and religion, this book makes the most recent scholarship on this much misunderstood debate widely accessible.
science. and. religion. Sujit Sivasundaram The period between the rise and the
fall of the British empire – that is, from the late eighteenth to the midtwentieth
centuries – witnessedan intenseencounter between religious cultures and
Author: Thomas Dixon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book carefully examines the claims made by the followers and promoters of both atheism and religion in a rational and engaging way.
Even before the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman
Empire in the fourth century, the new faith was ... was again vulnerable to attack,
this time (in Britain) from the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, 20 Faith in the Age of
Author: Mark Silversides
Publisher: Sacristy Press
This volume challenges the widespread belief that scientific knowledge as such is international. Employing case studies from Austria, Poland, the Czech lands, and Hungary, the authors show how scientists in the late Habsburg Monarchy simultaneously nationalized and internationalized their knowledge.
Inhis conclusions, therefore, he positioned eugenicswithin thefield of politics
rather than within that of science. FollowingGalton, he predictedthat 'a eugenic
religion willtake shape inthe realm of ideologies. This religion willforbid all forms
Author: M. Ash
More than any other major religion, ideology or philosophy, Christianity associates sex, and especially sexual desire, with sin and evil. People may be able to avoid earthly punishment for their sexual indiscretions, but they can not escape God s judgment; an afterlife of eternal pain and suffering in hell. Religious sanctions of this sort are supposed to be in opposition to man s sinful nature; restraining his dangerous sexuality. However, punishing others for sex is actually part of man s nature. In nature, sex is highly competitive. Dominant males fight and threaten as they try to control sexual access to fertile females. Human males behave similarly. Rather than being in opposition to human nature, religion actually reinforces man s animal instinct to control the sexual behavior of others. This explains why religion-inspired sexual restrictions and punishments are so popular among men. Of course, religion claims that it s really all about morality. Without strict religious control over sexual behavior human passions would lead to the destruction of society. God has given us His law in order to protect us from ourselves. Religion, it is often said, is what is good for society. But if this is so, why is it that those societies where religious belief is strongest and which have the harshest penalties for breaking the sexual code are also the societies that tend to be the least orderly and the most corrupt, brutal and violent? Religion is taken very seriously in many of the Islamic societies of the Middle East, and the strictest sexual code is adhered to. Yet, these societies are characterized not by prosperity and social order, but by poverty, violence and oppression. Meanwhile, the most sexually liberal societies, especially those of Western Europe, are the freest and the most democratic, prosperous and orderly. If strict sexual morality is not really good for society, why do religious conservatives everywhere continue to clamor for it? And why do people so willingly accept religion that tells them their sexuality is sinful and shameful? The truth is that most of the time people act on their own selfish feelings and desires, not on what is good for society as a whole. The desire to limit and control the sexual behavior of others is felt by women as well as men. Powerful feelings, such as sexual jealousy, inspire aggressive behavior. Strict anti-sex religious morality allows people to act aggressively on these feelings in a sociably acceptable way. Thus, it s not really about doing what is good for society, it s all about individual desires. This is best explained from an evolutionary perspective, which is exactly what this book does."
Islam has been described as a man's religion, and it certainly lives up to this
description. ... of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the decline of the Roman Empire, all
of which are supposed to have met with catastrophe due to sexual licentiousness
Author: C. Roland Cook
Publisher: Dog Ear Publishing