Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria

The book summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected genera of the domain Bacteria along with an extensive coverage of the redox ...

Author: Davide Zannoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402031632

Category: Science

Page: 312

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The book summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected genera of the domain Bacteria along with an extensive coverage of the redox chains of extremophiles belonging to the Archaean domain. The volume is a unique piece of work since it contains a series of chapters dealing with metabolic features having important microbiological and ecological relevance such as the use of ammonium, iron, methane, sulfur and hydrogen as respiratory substrates or nitrous compounds in denitrification processes. Particular attention is also dedicated to peculiar groups of prokaryotes such as Gram positives, acetic acid bacteria, pathogens of the genera Helicobacter and Campylobacter, nitrogen fixing symbionts and free-living species, oxygenic phototrophs (Cyanobacteria) and anoxygenic (purple non-sulfur) phototrophs. The book is intended to be a long-term source of information for Ph.D. students, researchers and undergraduates from disciplines such as microbiology, biochemistry and ecology, studying basic and applied sciences, medicine and agriculture.
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Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria

Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected groups of prokaryotes.

Author: Davide Zannoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402020015

Category: Science

Page: 356

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Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected groups of prokaryotes. It includes a series of Chapters providing an extensive coverage of the respiratory membrane-bound bacterial redox complexes and enzymes; it also covers evolution of respiration, cytochrome c biogenesis, bacterial haemoglobins, and oxidases as redox sensors.
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Advances in Bacterial Respiratory Physiology

It publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting physiology to include all material that contributes to our understanding of how microorganisms and their component parts work. First published in 1967, it is now in its 61st volume.

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Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123978158

Category: Science

Page: 282

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Advances in Microbial Physiology is one of the most successful and prestigious series from Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier. It publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting physiology to include all material that contributes to our understanding of how microorganisms and their component parts work. First published in 1967, it is now in its 61st volume. The Editors have always striven to interpret microbial physiology in the broadest context and have never restricted the contents to “traditional views of whole cell physiology. Now edited by Professor Robert Poole, University of Sheffield, Advances in Microbial Physiology continues to be an influential and very well reviewed series. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field
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Understanding Bacteria

The discipline of microbiology that deals with an amazingly diverse group of simple organisms, such as viruses, archaea, bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa, is an exciting field of Science.

Author: S. Srivastava

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401701297

Category: Science

Page: 469

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The discipline of microbiology that deals with an amazingly diverse group of simple organisms, such as viruses, archaea, bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa, is an exciting field of Science. Starting as a purely descriptive field, it has transformed into a truly experimental and interdisciplinary science inspiring a number of investigators to generate th a wealth of information on the entire gamut of microbiology. The later part of 20 century has been a golden era with molecular information coming in to unravel interesting insights ofthe microbial world. Ever since they were brought to light through a pair of ground glasses by the Dutchman, Antony van Leeuwenhoek, in later half of 17th century, they have been studied most extensively throughout the next three centuries, and are still revealing new facets of life and its functions. The interest in them, therefore, continues even in the 21 st century. Though they are simple, they provide a wealth of information on cell biology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and genetics and biotechnology. They, thus, constitute a model system to study a whole variety of subjects. All this provided the necessary impetus to write several valuable books on the subject of microbiology. While teaching a course of Microbial Genetics for the last 35 years at Delhi University, we strongly felt the need for authentic compiled data that could give exhaustive background information on each of the member groups that constitute the microbial world.
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E Z Microbiology

This book transforms a difficult subject into ideas that every attentive student can understand.

Author: Rene Krata

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781438082929

Category: Science

Page: 552

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A Simon & Schuster eBook. Simon & Schuster has a great book for every reader.
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Archaeal Cell Envelope and Surface Structures

“Respiratory chains in Archaea: from minimal systems to supercomplexes,” in Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria. Diversity of Prokaryotic Respiratory Systems, ed D. Zannoni (Dordrecht: Springer), 1–33. Schäfer, G., Engelhard, M., ...

Author: Sonja-Verena Albers

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889197736

Category:

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Archaea and Bacteria have complex cell envelopes that play important roles in several vital cellular processes, including serving as a barrier that protects the cytoplasm from the environment. Along with associated proteinaceous structures, cell envelopes also ensure cell stability, promote motility, mediate adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and facilitate communication with the extracellular environment. While some aspects of the biosynthesis and structure of the cell are similar to the three domains of life, archaeal cell envelopes exhibit several unique characteristics. Moreover, recent analyzes have revealed that many features of cell envelopes can vary greatly between distantly related archaea. The collection of reviews and original research papers in this focused issue describes research that has been significantly expanded in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and functions of archaeal cell envelopes and their constituent surface structures. Jain et al. (5) cytoplasmic membrane, isoprenoid lipid bilayer, as well as recently revealed the cytoplasmic membrane biosynthesis, which is conserved across the three domains of life. Complementing this review, Andreas Klingl summarizes the diverse structures and functions of archaeal cytoplasmic membranes (8). While most archaeal cells have a single membrane, the archaea have an outer membrane, which has been thought of in a different variety of archaeal lineages. One particular intriguing diderm is the hyperthermophilic archaeon. In the periplasmic space, ATP in the periplasmic space. Complementing this work, Kletzin provides an in-depth review of evolutionarily conserved and unique archaeal inner and outer membrane-associated cytochromes (7). The periplasmic space between the membranes of archaeal diderms does not contain a peptidoclycan layer. In fact, while the cytoplasmic membrane is superimposed by an S-layer in many monoderm archaea, it is unclear how diderms, and even some monoderm extremophiles that varnish to S-layer, withstand osmotic stress. As noted by Klingl (8), glycocalyx, lipoglycans, or other protective cell-associated glycoproteins, may take on the functions of a cell wall in some archaea. One such secreted protein, as described by Zenke et al., Is the halomucin of Haloquadratum walsbyi (15). While H. walsbyi does not have a cell wall, halomucine, an unusually large protein (9159aa), is thought to play an important role in protecting these extreme halophiles against desiccation. Interestingly, Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum, an uncultured diderm euryarchaeon, isolated from biofilms containing hammers, cell surface proteins with the appearance of grappling hooks that connect cells to each other and to abiotic surfaces. Perra's stunning imagery suggests that this is the case with the S-layer glycoproteins, possibly suggesting a case of divergent evolution (12). [0003] The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for the preparation of a medical device, Are conserved across the prokaryotic domains, being found in the majority of sequenced archaea, where, as in bacteria, they play key roles in processes necessary for biofilm formation (10, 13). Interestingly, as discussed by Albers and Jarrell (1), as well as Näther et al. (11), a type IV pilus-like structure is responsible for swimming motility in archaea. Many secreted proteins, including the S-layer glycoprotein and pilin-like proteins, are heavily post-translationally modified. [1]. [0002] The known proteolytic modifications of the proteins of the model haloarchaeon [1], vol. Using the results of proteomic studies, Leon et al. (9), providing an invaluable resource in silico prediction tools for the characterization of archaeal proteins, in general, but also specific phyla. Kandiba and Eichler review our current knowledge of N-glycosylation in archaea, including descriptions of the pathways the regulatory roles of this post-translational modification plays in cellular processes (6). Considering the unique aspects of the archaeal cell envelope, including not only the protein structures, but their post-translational modifications as well, it is not surprising that archaeal viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to infect and egress from archaeal cells, which are reviewed in this Issue by Quemin and Quax (14). Understanding the roles that can be seen in this book is a study of the development of biofuels in the field of bioinformatics, including mucosa-associated methanogenic archaea, can (2). (2) In this paper, Archaeal cell membranes and S-layer glycoproteins have been used to make liposomes and nanomaterials. Finally, a better understanding of the similarities and differences among the archaea as well as between the archaea and the other two domains will lead to the development of a more accurate phylogeny. In this issue, Forterre takes advantage of the latest profusion of genome studies, along with supporting in vivo work, to assemble an improved tree of life (3). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that this is not the case. Acknowledgments The support of the National Science Foundation MCB-1413158 to MP and the ERC starting grant 311523 (archaellum) to SA are gratefully acknowledged. References: 1. Albers SV & Jarrell KF (2015) The archaellum: how Archaea swim. Frontiers in microbiology 6:23. 2. Bang C, et al. (2014) Biofilm formation of mucosa-associated methanoarchaeal strains. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 353. 3. Forterre P (2015) The Universal Tree: an update. Frontiers in Microbiology, in 4. Gimenez MI, Cerletti M, & De Castro RE (2015) Archaeal membrane-associated proteases: insights on Haloferax volcanii and other haloarchaea. Frontiers in microbiology 6:39. 5. Jain S, Caforio A, & Driessen AJ (2014) Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 641. 6. Kandiba L & Eichler J (2014) Archaeal S-layer glycoproteins: post-translational modification in the face of extremes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 661. 7. Kletzin A, et al. (2015) Cytochromes c in Archaea: distribution, maturation, cell architecture, and the special case of Ignicoccus hospitalis. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 439. 8. Klingl A (2014) S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane - exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 624. 9. Leon DR, et al. (2015) Mining proteomic data to expose protein modifications to methanosarcina mazei strain Go1. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 149. 10. Losensky G, Vidakovic L, Klingl A, Pfeifer F, & Frols S (2014) Novel pili-like surface structures of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1 are crucial for surface adhesion. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 755. 11. Nather-Schindler DJ, Schopf S, Bellack A, Rachel R, & Wirth R (2014) Pyrococcus furiosus flagella: biochemical and transcriptional analyzes identify the newly detected flaB0 gene to encode the major flagellin. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 695. 12. Perras AK, et al. (2015) S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 543. 13. Pohlschroder M & Esquivel RN (2015) Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation. Frontiers in microbiology 6:19. 14. Quemin ER & Quax TE (2015) Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 552. 15. Zenke R, et al. (2015) fluorescence microscopy visualization of halomucin, a secreted 927 kDa protein surrounding haloquadratum walsbyi cells. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 249.
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Plant Mitochondria From Genome to Function

Volumes 15 and 16 (both edited by Davide Zannoni) dealt with “Respiration in Bacteria and Archaea.” Volume 17 is a sequel to the sixteen volumes in the AIPH Series. Volume 18 (edited by Hans Lambers and Miquel Ribas-Carbo), ...

Author: David Day

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402024009

Category: Science

Page: 325

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Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells. The book begins with an overview of the dynamics of mitochondrial structure, morphology and inheritance. It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. Also covered are the pathways of electron transport, with special attention to the non-phosphorylating bypasses, metabolite transport, and specialized mitochondrial metabolism. In the end, the impact of oxidative stress on mitochondria and the defense mechanisms, that are employed to allow survival, are discussed. This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences.
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Symbiotic Interactions Among Protists Archaea and Bacteria in Low Oxygen Environments

In the natural world, most bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes live in close association with other microbes, and are often key symbiotic residents in protists (single-celled microbial eukaryotes excluding fungi) as well as ...

Author: Marissa Brett Hirst

Publisher:

ISBN: 1303792001

Category:

Page:

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In the natural world, most bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes live in close association with other microbes, and are often key symbiotic residents in protists (single-celled microbial eukaryotes excluding fungi) as well as multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Symbiosis, or "the living together of unlike organisms," has been a major driving force in shaping the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Partnerships between eukaryotes and microorganisms are important because they have a wide taxonomic distribution across the tree of life, suggesting that symbioses play an essential role in the evolution of the species involved. Symbiosis-specific genes, pathways, and structures have also been identified, which are a direct result of evolution favoring the maintenance of the partnership. Lastly, microorganisms make up the greatest biomass and are also responsible for the most complex biochemical reactions on Earth, which makes symbioses between microbes and eukaryotes crucial for driving the evolution of communities. One common misconception regarding microbial eukaryotes is that they are absent from anaerobic environments, but in fact, they are common in a variety of anaerobic habitats including tidal marshes, microbial mats, anoxic marine basins, and the guts of many animals. Although the eukaryotic lineage of the tree of life is primarily composed of single-celled microbial eukaryotes, little is known about free-living protists (with the exception of pathogens). The second chapter of this dissertation focuses on a successful, new method used to describe the diversity of protists in diverse environments by linking culture-independent small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) sequencing to the morphology of protists. Anaerobic environments are habitats that are strongly influenced by microbially-mediated, symbiosis driven biogeochemical cycling. Many microorganisms cannot perform anaerobic respiration, but instead, ferment organic acids and generate ATP in the process. In anaerobic habitats; however, a single fermenting microbe cannot completely catabolize carbon substrates to carbon dioxide without the concerted activity with other microbial anaerobes. In this regard, one microbe lives off of the byproducts of another microorganism and neither microbe could survive on its own. This type of mutualism is known as syntrophy and is a thermodynamically interdependent lifestyle. One environment in which anaerobic microbial eukaryotes are prevalent and have intimate partnerships with bacteria and archaea, is the cow rumen. Rumen ciliates ferment organic acids to acetate or other volatile fatty acids while producing ATP and generating carbon dioxide and dihydrogen. Fermentation by rumen ciliates is an endergonic reaction in the rumen, but becomes exergonic when it is coupled to methanogenesis. Methanogens utilize carbon dioxide as a carbon source and dihydrogen as an energy source; the coupling of fermentation and methanogenesis is known as "interspecies hydrogen transfer" (IHT). IHT is known to occur between free-living methanogens and rumen ciliates, but a syntrophic symbiosis between ciliates and methanogens has not been confirmed in the literature. The third chapter of this dissertation identifies and describes the underlying metabolism of the first two putative, obligate, endosymbiotic methanogenic archaea in ciliates using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), metagenomic sequencing, assembly, and annotation, and rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Lastly, symbioses between bacteria in anaerobic environments can drive cycling in anoxic marine environments, and in particular Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). In suboxic waters and OMZs specifically, denitrification (conversion of nitrate to dinitrogen) is limited by the diffusive flux of nitrate from water into the overlying sediments; however, the production of dinitrogen occurs below these limits, suggesting that an alternative, microbiologically driven metabolic process may be responsible for the loss of nitrogen from OMZs. Anammox bacteria are present in OMZs and gain valuable free energy by reducing ammonium to nitrite while producing dinitrogen (NO3− [arrow right] NO2− [arrow right] NH4+). In addition, Thioploca (macroscopic bacteria) are found in OMZs, and are chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxiding proteobacteria that glide vertically through marine sediments. Thioploca couples sulfide oxidation with dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction at depth (NO3− + H2S + H2O [arrow right] SO4−2 + NH4+) but also converts large stores of nitrate to nitrite and generates elemental sulfur that it stores in vacuoles within its cells (NO3− + H2S [arrow right] NO2− + S0 + H2O). Based on geochemical and isotopic observations, a symbiosis between anammox bacteria and Thioploca was hypothesized to be the driving force behind the loss of dinitrogen from marine sediments underlying OMZs. The last chapter of this dissertation provides molecular (SSU rRNA sequence data), microscopic data (rRNA-targeted FISH), and isotopic evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a symbiosis between Thioploca and anammox bacteria, responsible for upwards of 20% nitrogen loss from OMZs.
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Habitability of Other Planets and Satellites

14.7 of del Giorgio and Williams (2005), allowing for respiration by primary producers, about 80% of bacterial ... about 16 Pg carbon can be allocated to each of archaeal and bacterial chemo-organotrophic productivity and respiration.

Author: Jean-Pierre de Vera

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400765467

Category: Science

Page: 419

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Is the Earth the right model and the only universal key to understand habitability, the origin and maintenance of life? Are we able to detect life elsewhere in the universe by the existing techniques and by the upcoming space missions? This book tries to give answers by focusing on environmental properties, which are playing a major role in influencing planetary surfaces or the interior of planets and satellites. The book gives insights into the nature of planets or satellites and their potential to harbor life. Different scientific disciplines are searching for the clues to classify planetary bodies as a habitable object and what kind of instruments and what kind of space exploration missions are necessary to detect life. Results from model calculations, field studies and from laboratory studies in planetary simulation facilities will help to elucidate if some of the planets and satellites in our solar system as well as in extra-solar systems are potentially habitable for life.
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Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle

5.2 Properties of N2O reductase N2O respiration is found in numerous taxonomic groups and a wide variety of habitats. The range of organisms spans extremophilic archaea, phototrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria, pathogens, ...

Author: Hermann Bothe

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444531087

Category:

Page: 427

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