Robot Ethics 2 0

For instance, where military robots had received much attention in the past (and are still controversial today), this volume looks toward autonomous cars here as an important case study that cuts across diverse issues, from liability to ...

Author: Keith Abney

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190652951

Category: Philosophy

Page: 440

View: 334

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The robot population is rising on Earth and other planets. (Mars is inhabited entirely by robots.) As robots slip into more domains of human life--from the operating room to the bedroom--they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This makes it all the more urgent to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts. To help the robotics industry and broader society, we need to not only press ahead on a wide range of issues, but also identify new ones emerging as quickly as the field is evolving. For instance, where military robots had received much attention in the past (and are still controversial today), this volume looks toward autonomous cars here as an important case study that cuts across diverse issues, from liability to psychology to trust and more. And because robotics feeds into and is fed by AI, the Internet of Things, and other cognate fields, robot ethics must also reach into those domains, too. Expanding these discussions also means listening to new voices; robot ethics is no longer the concern of a handful of scholars. Experts from different academic disciplines and geographical areas are now playing vital roles in shaping ethical, legal, and policy discussions worldwide. So, for a more complete study, the editors of this volume look beyond the usual suspects for the latest thinking. Many of the views as represented in this cutting-edge volume are provocative--but also what we need to push forward in unfamiliar territory.
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Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics

This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas ...

Author: Wendell Wallach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1472430395

Category:

Page: 536

View: 939

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Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas of study, as well as important recent articles. The research articles selected focus on the control and governance of computational systems; the exploration of ethical and moral theories using software and robots as laboratories or simulations; inquiry into the necessary requirements for moral agency and the basis and boundaries of rights; and questions of how best to design systems that are both useful and morally sound. Collectively the articles ask what the practical ethical and legal issues, arising from the development of robots, will be over the next twenty years and how best to address these future considerations.
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Robot Ethics

How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.

Author: Patrick Lin

Publisher: Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents series

ISBN: 9780262526005

Category: Philosophy

Page: 386

View: 539

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Prominent experts from science and the humanities explore issues in robot ethics that range from sex to war. Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field. Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration. Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.
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Healthcare Robots

The book speaks to, and is meant to be read by, a range of disciplines from science and engineering to philosophers and ethicists.

Author: Aimee van Wynsberghe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317123156

Category: Political Science

Page: 166

View: 676

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This study deals with an underexplored area of the emerging technologies debate: robotics in the healthcare setting. The author explores the role of care and develops a value-sensitive ethical framework for the eventual employment of care robots. Highlighting the range of positive and negative aspects associated with the initiative to design and use care robots, it draws out essential content as a guide to future design both reinforcing this study’s contemporary relevance, and giving weight to its prescriptions. The book speaks to, and is meant to be read by, a range of disciplines from science and engineering to philosophers and ethicists.
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Robot Rights

In this book, David Gunkel offers a provocative attempt to think about what has been previously regarded as unthinkable: whether and to what extent robots and other technological artifacts of our own making can and should have any claim to ...

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262038621

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 172

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A provocative attempt to think about what was previously considered unthinkable: a serious philosophical case for the rights of robots. We are in the midst of a robot invasion, as devices of different configurations and capabilities slowly but surely come to take up increasingly important positions in everyday social reality—self-driving vehicles, recommendation algorithms, machine learning decision making systems, and social robots of various forms and functions. Although considerable attention has already been devoted to the subject of robots and responsibility, the question concerning the social status of these artifacts has been largely overlooked. In this book, David Gunkel offers a provocative attempt to think about what has been previously regarded as unthinkable: whether and to what extent robots and other technological artifacts of our own making can and should have any claim to moral and legal standing. In his analysis, Gunkel invokes the philosophical distinction (developed by David Hume) between “is” and “ought” in order to evaluate and analyze the different arguments regarding the question of robot rights. In the course of his examination, Gunkel finds that none of the existing positions or proposals hold up under scrutiny. In response to this, he then offers an innovative alternative proposal that effectively flips the script on the is/ought problem by introducing another, altogether different way to conceptualize the social situation of robots and the opportunities and challenges they present to existing moral and legal systems.
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Moral Machines

"Moral Machines is a fine introduction to the emerging field of robot ethics. There is much here that will interest ethicists, philosophers, cognitive scientists, and roboticists." ---Peter Danielson, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews --

Author: Wendell Wallach

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199737970

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 135

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"Moral Machines is a fine introduction to the emerging field of robot ethics. There is much here that will interest ethicists, philosophers, cognitive scientists, and roboticists." ---Peter Danielson, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews --
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Robot Ethics and the Innovation Economy

This book provides an authoritative resource on the topic of intelligent robots, artificial intelligence and the ethical implications of these revolutionary innovations.

Author: Jon-Arild Johannessen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000398595

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 132

View: 722

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This book provides an authoritative resource on the topic of intelligent robots, artificial intelligence and the ethical implications of these revolutionary innovations. It examines the moral and ethical problems that arise in relation to the development, design and use of intelligent robots, which are capable of autonomous or semi-autonomous decision-making. These problems might relate, for example, to medical robots, driverless cars, intelligent military drones, pedagogical robots, police robots, legal robots and many others. The main question addressed in this book is how we can understand, explain and apply the concept of ethics in relation to intelligent robots and artificial intelligence. In each chapter, the author examines a different aspect of this question. The author also questions how we can ensure that intelligent robots are of service to humans and under what conditions intelligent robots could become more ethical than humans. The book employs an original approach to examining this cutting-edge research question, combining different research areas, and offers a wealth of practical relevance and real-world examples, illustrated through vivid case studies. With its jargon free approach and a dedicated chapter on relevant concepts at the end, this book is also accessible to readers without prior knowledge on intelligent robots and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. By providing a general account of this debate, and of the consequences of the innovations resulting from these trends, the book serves as an important contribution to the discussion and will find a natural readership among scholars and students of the innovation economy and those concerned with the ethical considerations arising in the wake of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
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Ethics for Robots

Ethics for Robots describes and defends a method for designing and evaluating ethics algorithms for autonomous machines, such as self-driving cars and search and rescue drones.

Author: Derek Leben

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351769068

Category: Philosophy

Page: 158

View: 892

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Ethics for Robots describes and defends a method for designing and evaluating ethics algorithms for autonomous machines, such as self-driving cars and search and rescue drones. Derek Leben argues that such algorithms should be evaluated by how effectively they accomplish the problem of cooperation among self-interested organisms, and therefore, rather than simulating the psychological systems that have evolved to solve this problem, engineers should be tackling the problem itself, taking relevant lessons from our moral psychology. Leben draws on the moral theory of John Rawls, arguing that normative moral theories are attempts to develop optimal solutions to the problem of cooperation. He claims that Rawlsian Contractarianism leads to the ‘Maximin’ principle – the action that maximizes the minimum value – and that the Maximin principle is the most effective solution to the problem of cooperation. He contrasts the Maximin principle with other principles and shows how they can often produce non-cooperative results. Using real-world examples – such as an autonomous vehicle facing a situation where every action results in harm, home care machines, and autonomous weapons systems – Leben contrasts Rawlsian algorithms with alternatives derived from utilitarianism and natural rights libertarianism. Including chapter summaries and a glossary of technical terms, Ethics for Robots is essential reading for philosophers, engineers, computer scientists, and cognitive scientists working on the problem of ethics for autonomous systems.
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A World with Robots

This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015.

Author: Maria Isabel Aldinhas Ferreira

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319466675

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 748

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This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close human-robot interactions in everyday households; robots for education and entertainment; and robots employed in elderly and other care applications • Mobile Robots: Self-driving vehicles, autonomous aircraft, trains, cars and drones • Robots used in medicine and for therapeutic purposes • Robots used in surveillance and military functions
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Roboethics

This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action.

Author: Spyros G. Tzafestas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319217147

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 204

View: 218

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This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action. It examines how ethical and moral theories can and must be applied to address the complex and critical issues of the application of these intelligent robots in society. Coverage first presents fundamental concepts and provides a general overview of ethics, artificial intelligence and robotics. Next, the book studies all principal ethical applications of robots, namely medical, assistive, socialized and war roboethics. It looks at such issues as robotic surgery, children-robot and elderly-robot therapeutical/social interactions and the use of robots, especially autonomous lethal ones, in warfare. In addition, a chapter also considers Japanese roboethics as well as key intercultural and robot legislation issues. Overall, readers are provided with a thorough investigation into the moral responsibility (if any) of autonomous robots when doing harm. This volume will serve as an ideal educational source in engineering and robotics courses as well as an introductory reference for researchers in the field.
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A World with Robots

This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015.

Author: Maria Isabel Aldinhas Ferreira

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319466658

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 233

View: 297

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This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close human-robot interactions in everyday households; robots for education and entertainment; and robots employed in elderly and other care applications • Mobile Robots: Self-driving vehicles, autonomous aircraft, trains, cars and drones • Robots used in medicine and for therapeutic purposes • Robots used in surveillance and military functions
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Ethics and Security Automata

Will security automata increase or decrease aggregate risk to humans? What regulation is appropriate? Addressing these important issues this book examines the political and technical challenges of the robotic use of force.

Author: Sean Welsh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351687492

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 606

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Can security automata (robots and AIs) make moral decisions to apply force on humans correctly? If they can make such decisions, ought they be used to do so? Will security automata increase or decrease aggregate risk to humans? What regulation is appropriate? Addressing these important issues this book examines the political and technical challenges of the robotic use of force. The book presents accessible practical examples of the ‘machine ethics’ technology likely to be installed in military and police robots and also in civilian robots with everyday security functions such as childcare. By examining how machines can pass ‘reasonable person’ tests to demonstrate measurable levels of moral competence and display the ability to determine the ‘spirit’ as well as the ‘letter of the law’, the author builds upon existing research to define conditions under which robotic force can and ought to be used to enhance human security. The scope of the book is thus far broader than ‘shoot to kill’ decisions by autonomous weapons, and should attract readers from the fields of ethics, politics, and legal, military and international affairs. Researchers in artificial intelligence and robotics will also find it useful.
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Robot Ethics

"A concise overview of the ethical issues that are likely to emerge as robots become more social and more integrated into human life"--

Author: Mark Coeckelbergh

Publisher:

ISBN: 0262544091

Category: Robots

Page:

View: 158

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"A concise overview of the ethical issues that are likely to emerge as robots become more social and more integrated into human life"--
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Artificial Intelligence Robot Law Policy and Ethics

This book provides an in-depth analysis of the existing regulatory tools, as well as a new comprehensive framework for regulating Strong AI.

Author: Nathalie Rébé

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004458109

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 213

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In Artificial Intelligence: Robot Law, Policy and Ethics, Dr. Nathalie Rébé discusses the legal and contemporary issues in relation to creating conscious robots. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the existing regulatory tools, as well as a new comprehensive framework for regulating Strong AI.
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Humans and Robots

Moreover, some people already say that robots should be our companions and have rights. Others say that robots should be slaves. This book tackles emerging ethical issues about human beings, robots, and agency head on.

Author: Sven Nyholm

Publisher: Philosophy, Technology and Soc

ISBN: 1786612275

Category: Philosophy

Page: 169

View: 339

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Can robots perform actions, make decisions, collaborate with humans, be our friends, perhaps fall in love, or potentially harm us? Even before these things truly happen, ethical and philosophical questions already arise. The reason is that we humans have a tendency to spontaneously attribute minds and "agency" to anything even remotely humanlike. Moreover, some people already say that robots should be our companions and have rights. Others say that robots should be slaves. This book tackles emerging ethical issues about human beings, robots, and agency head on. It explores the ethics of creating robots that are, or appear to be, decision-making agents. From military robots to self-driving cars to care robots or even sex robots equipped with artificial intelligence: how should we interpret the apparent agency of such robots? This book argues that we need to explore how human beings can best coordinate and collaborate with robots in responsible ways. It investigates ethically important differences between human agency and robot agency to work towards an ethics of responsible human-robot interaction.
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Robot Sex

This book fills the gap, offering perspectives from philosophy, psychology, religious studies, economics, and law on the possible future of robot-human sexual relationships.

Author: John Danaher

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780262536028

Category: Human-robot interaction

Page: 328

View: 621

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Perspectives from philosophy, psychology religious studies, economics, and law on the possible future of robot-human sexual relationships. Sexbots are coming. Given the pace of technological advances, it is inevitable that realistic robots specifically designed for people's sexual gratification will be developed in the not-too-distant future. Despite popular culture's fascination with the topic, and the emergence of the much-publicized Campaign Against Sex Robots, there has been little academic research on the social, philosophical, moral, and legal implications of robot sex. This book fills the gap, offering perspectives from philosophy, psychology, religious studies, economics, and law on the possible future of robot-human sexual relationships. Contributors discuss what a sex robot is, if they exist, why we should take the issue seriously, and what it means to "have sex" with a robot. They make the case for developing sex robots, arguing for their beneficial nature, and the case against it, on religious and moral grounds; they consider the subject from the robot's perspective, addressing such issues as consent and agency; and they ask whether it is possible for a human to form a mutually satisfying, loving relationship with a robot. Finally, they speculate about the future of human-robot sexual interaction, considering the social acceptability of sex robots and the possible effect on society. Contributors Marina Adshade, Thomas Arnold, Julie Carpenter, John Danaher, Brian Earp, Lily Eva Frank, Joshua Goldstein, Michael Hauskeller, Noreen Herzfeld, Neil McArthur, Mark Migotti, Sven Nyholm, Ezio di Nucci, Steve Petersen, Anders Sandberg, Matthias Scheutz, Litska Strikwerda, Nicole Wyatt
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Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics

Machine ethics or machine morality considers the prospects for creating computers ... There is no firm distinction between robot ethics and machine ethics, ...

Author: Wendell Wallach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000108934

Category: Philosophy

Page: 552

View: 868

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Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas of study, as well as important recent articles. The research articles selected focus on the control and governance of computational systems; the exploration of ethical and moral theories using software and robots as laboratories or simulations; inquiry into the necessary requirements for moral agency and the basis and boundaries of rights; and questions of how best to design systems that are both useful and morally sound. Collectively the articles ask what the practical ethical and legal issues, arising from the development of robots, will be over the next twenty years and how best to address these future considerations.
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Robots Ethics and the Future of Jobs

AI technologies are driving automation on so many fronts.

Author: Sean McDonagh

Publisher:

ISBN: 1788123069

Category: Computers

Page: 184

View: 674

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AI technologies are driving automation on so many fronts. Many commentators believe that within two decades forty to fifty percent of people will not be able to find paid employment. At the moment, no institution is preparing properly for this eventuality.
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Ethics and Robotics

The ethical perspective addressed in this volume is therefore the one we humans have when interacting with robots.

Author: Rafael Capurro

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39076002845050

Category: Robotics

Page: 123

View: 567

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"Ethics and robotics are two academic disciplines, one dealing with the moral norms and values underlying implicitly or explicitly human behavior and the other aiming at the production of artificial agents, mostly as physical devices, with some degree of autonomy based on rules and programmes set up by their creators. Robotics is also one of the research fields where the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science is currently taking place with large societal and legal implications beyond traditional industrial applications. Robots are and will remain -in the foreseeable future- dependent on human ethical scrutiny as well as on the moral and legal responsibility of humans. Human-robot interaction raises serious ethical questions right now that are theoretically less ambitious, but practically more important than the possibility of the creation of moral machines that would be more than machines with an ethical code. The ethical perspective addressed in this volume is therefore the one we humans have when interacting with robots. Topics include the ethical challenges of healthcare and warfare applications of robotics, as well as fundamental questions concerning the moral dimension of human-robot-interaction including epistomological, ontological and psychoanalytic issues. It deals also with the intercultural dialogue between Western and Non-Western as well as between European and US-American ethicists."--P. [4] of cover.
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Robot Ethics 2 0

police aside, there are serious ethical and policy worries about this novel use of a robot as a weapon in law enforcement, even if the law is silent on such ...

Author: Patrick Lin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190652968

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 966

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The robot population is rising on Earth and other planets. (Mars is inhabited entirely by robots.) As robots slip into more domains of human life--from the operating room to the bedroom--they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This makes it all the more urgent to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts. To help the robotics industry and broader society, we need to not only press ahead on a wide range of issues, but also identify new ones emerging as quickly as the field is evolving. For instance, where military robots had received much attention in the past (and are still controversial today), this volume looks toward autonomous cars here as an important case study that cuts across diverse issues, from liability to psychology to trust and more. And because robotics feeds into and is fed by AI, the Internet of Things, and other cognate fields, robot ethics must also reach into those domains, too. Expanding these discussions also means listening to new voices; robot ethics is no longer the concern of a handful of scholars. Experts from different academic disciplines and geographical areas are now playing vital roles in shaping ethical, legal, and policy discussions worldwide. So, for a more complete study, the editors of this volume look beyond the usual suspects for the latest thinking. Many of the views as represented in this cutting-edge volume are provocative--but also what we need to push forward in unfamiliar territory.
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