Russian Space Probes

The final part of the book examines the future of Russian space science and looks at planned new missions, such as the Spektr series of space observatories, and return flights to the Moon and Mars, including a sample of Phobos.

Author: Brian Harvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441981500

Category: Science

Page: 514

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Brian Harvey recounts for the first time the definitive history of scientific Russian space probes and the knowledge they acquired of the Earth, its environment, the Moon, Mars and Venus. He examines what Russian Space Science has actually achieved in furthering our knowledge of the Solar System, focusing on the instrumentation and scientific objectives and outcomes, the information gained and lessons learnt. Boxes and charts are used extensively in order to convey in an easily understandable manner for the non-scientific reader the problems and issues addressed and solved by Soviet space science. The book opens with the story of early space science in Russia, which started when the first Russian rockets were fired into the high atmosphere from Kapustin Yar in the late 1940s. Instruments were carried to measure and map the atmosphere and later rockets carried dogs to test their reactions to weightlessness. In order to beat America into Earth orbit, two simpler satellites than originally planned were launched, Sputnik and Sputnik 2, which provided some initial information on atmospheric density, while the following Sputnik 3 carried twelve instruments to measure radiation belts, solar radiation, the density of the atmosphere and the Earth’s magnetic field. The author recounts how, by the 1960s, the Soviet Union had developed a program of investigation of near-Earth space using satellites within the Cosmos program, in particular the DS (Dnepropetrovsky Sputnik), small satellites developed to investigate meteoroids, radiation, the magnetic fields, the upper atmosphere, solar activity, ionosphere, charged particles, cosmic rays and geophysics. Brian Harvey then gives the scientific results from Russian lunar exploration, starting with the discovery of the solar wind by the First Cosmic Ship and the initial mapping of the lunar far side by the Automatic Interplanetary Station. He describes Luna 10, which made the first full study of the lunar environment, Luna 16 which brought soil back to Earth and the two Moon rovers which travelled 50 kms across the lunar surface taking thousands of measurements, soil analyses and photographs, as well as profiles of discrete areas. Chapters 4 and 5 describe in detail the scientific outcomes of the missions to Venus and Mars, before considering the orbiting space stations in Chapter 6. Space science formed an important part of the early manned space program, the prime focus being the human reaction to weightlessness, how long people could stay in orbit and the effects on the body, as well as radiation exposure. Chapter 7 looks at the later stage of Soviet and Russian space science, including Astron and Granat, the two observatories of the 1980s, and Bion, the space biology program which flew monkeys and other animals into orbit. The final chapter looks forward to a new period of Russian space science with the Spektr series of observatories and a range smaller science satellites under the Federal Space Plan 2006-2015.
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The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program

Applications satellites circled the Earth while deep-space probes set out for
distant destinations. ... From 1992 on, under the Russian space program, Buran
was canceled, the Mars 96 probe crashed ignominiously, the unmanned
scientific ...

Author: Brian Harvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387713540

Category: Science

Page: 358

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This, fifty years after Sputnik, is the definitive book on the Russian space program. The author covers all the key elements of the current Russian space program, including both manned and unmanned missions. He examines the various types of unmanned applications programs as well as the crucial military program, and even analyzes the infrastructure of production, launch centres and tracking. You’ll also find discussion of the commercialization of the program and its relationship with western companies. Russia’s current space experiment is also put in a comparative global context. Strong emphasis is placed on Russia’s future space intentions and on new programs and missions in prospect.
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Soviet Russia Strategic Survey

Space Probes . THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE OF THE SUN . Pervyi
iskusstvennyi sputnik solntsa , by G . V ... 1961 , a Russian space probe escaped
earth ' s gravity and began a journey towards Venus that would last for long
weeks .

Author: United States. Department of the Army

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004818934

Category: Soviet Union

Page: 223

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Russian Planetary Exploration

Although the Western image of Soviet Mars probes is that they all failed, in reality
they contributed much to our early knowledge of the planet. To this day, four
Russian spacecraft still circle Venus and another four orbit Mars. Ten landers still
sit ...

Author: Brian Harvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387463438

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 306

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Illustrated with photographs from Soviet Venus and Mars probes, images of spacecraft, diagrams of flight paths and maps of landing sites, this book draws on published scientific papers, archives, memoirs and other material. The text reviews Soviet engineering techniques and science packages, as well the difficulties which ruined several missions. The program’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, within the Soviet space effort as a whole.
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U S Russian cooperation in space

From that point of view, the French-Soviet space cooperation: G opened a lot of
unique opportunities for French scientists and engineers (more experiments,
large scientific spacecraft, lunar and planetary probes, recoverable payloads, ...

Author:

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9781428920453

Category:

Page: 138

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The recent broad political rapprochement between the United States and the nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has transformed the environment for cooperation on space projects, and led to cooperative programs in space with Russia and other FSU states that would have been unimaginable just a few years ago. Chief among these are the high-profile human spaceflight cooperative activities involving the Space Shuttle-Space Station Mir dockings and the International Space Station. This report surveys the potential benefits and drawbacks of expanded cooperation with Russia and other nations of the FSU in space activities, and examines the impacts of closer cooperation on U.S. industry and U.S. national security concerns. Such cooperation has begun to yield scientific, technological, political, and economic benefits to the United States. However, the political and economic risks of cooperating with the Russians are higher than with the United States' traditional partners in space. Cooperation in robotic space science and earth remote sensing is proceeding well, within the stringent limits of current Russian (and U.S.) space budgets. Including Russia in the International Space Station program provides technical and political benefits to the space station partners, but placing the Russian contribution in the critical path to completion also poses programmatic and political risks. The report notes that much of the motivation for the expansion of cooperation with Russia lies beyond programmatic considerations.
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Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion

1.1.1 The Russian space programme In general terms, the Russian space
programme has been the most active and focused in history: the ®rst arti®cial
satellite, the ®rst man in space, the ®rst spacecraft on the Moon, the ®rst docking
of two ...

Author: Martin J. L. Turner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540692034

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 414

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The revised edition of this practical, hands-on book discusses the launch vehicles in use today throughout the world, and includes the latest details on advanced systems being developed, such as electric and nuclear propulsion. The author covers the fundamentals, from the basic principles of rocket propulsion and vehicle dynamics through the theory and practice of liquid and solid propellant motors, to new and future developments. He provides a serious exposition of the principles and practice of rocket propulsion, from the point of view of the user who is not an engineering specialist.
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Russian Space Exploration

Space shuttle : Space vehicle which can return to Earth by gliding . Specific
impulse ... Splav : Russian for alloy ; name of electric kiln used in the Salyut
space laboratories . Sputnik ... Zond : Russian for probe ; series of Russian space
probes .

Author: Julian Popescu

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4540410

Category: Astronautics

Page: 150

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Space Travelers and the Genesis of the Human Form

Chapter Two Robot Game Wardens : Evidence of Space Traveling ETI in the
Solar System With probes it would be possible ... It seems that pictures of such
theoretical Robot Game Wardens may have actually arrived via Russian space
probe .

Author: Joan D'Arc

Publisher: Book Tree

ISBN: 1585091278

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 267

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Can Darwinian evolution actually prove that we are alone in the Universe? This book illustrates that Darwinian evolution is not an empirically predictable or testable scientific paradigm. Also shows that ancient artifacts on Mars and the Moon are evidence of Game Wardens in our own solar system. Could the Earth be a controlled DNA repository for the ongoing creation and dissemination of life forms, including humans? The author puts forth compelling evidence in this well researched work.
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Deep Space Probes

4.5 THE SOLAR-PHOTON SAIL Although this approach to spaceflight has a
venerable theoretical history, the first test of a solar-photon sail in space did not
occur until 1993, when Russian engineers unfurled Znamia 2, an experimental ...

Author: Gregory Matloff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 185233200X

Category: Science

Page: 184

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This expert guide, written by a major figure at the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center, presents an authoritative and comprehensive survey of the present-day state-of-the-art in the field of extrasolar and interstellar space exploration, focusing on the most promising techniques. It looks at potential missions and explores the many exciting ideas being developed to probe the planets and nearby stars for signs of life. Because of the tremendous current interest in the search for extrasolar life and extraterrestrial intelligence, this is a timely and illuminating survey.
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Deep Space Probes

4.5 THE SOLAR PHOTON SAIL Although this approach to spaceflight has a
venerable theoretical history, the first test of a solar photon sail in space did not
occur until 1993, when Russian engineers unfurled Znamia 2. an experimental ...

Author: Gregory L. Matloff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540247726

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 242

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The Space Age is nearly 50 years old but exploration of the outer planets and beyond has only just begun. Deep-Space Probes Second Edition draws on the latest research to explain why we should explore beyond the edge of the Solar System and how we can build highly sophisticated robot spacecraft to make the journey. Many technical problems remain to be solved, among them propulsion systems to permit far higher velocities, and technologies to build vehicles a fraction of the size of today’s spacecraft. Beyond the range of effective radio control, robot vehicles for exploring deep space will need to be intelligent, ‘thinking’ craft – able to make vital decisions entirely on their own. Gregory Matloff also looks at the possibility for human travel into interstellar space, and some of the immense problems that such journeys would entail. This second edition includes an entirely new chapter on holographic message plaques for future interstellar probes – a NASA-funded project.
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Epic Rivalry

These trips have been and will remain quite expensive, with the Russian space
agency charging anywhere from 20 to 25 ... beyond Earth orbit were not pursued
in the decades after Apollo, vast new strides were made in deep-space probes.

Author: Von Hardesty

Publisher: National Geographic Books

ISBN: 9781426202094

Category: History

Page: 304

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When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon in 1969, they personified an almost unimaginable feat—the incredibly complex task of sending humans safely to another celestial body. This extraordinary odyssey, which grew from the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War, was galvanized by the Sputnik launch in 1957. To mark the fiftieth anniversary of Sputnik, National Geographic recaptures this gripping moment in the human experience with a lively and compelling new account. Written by Smithsonian curator Von Hardesty and researcher Gene Eisman, Epic Rivalry tells the story from both the American and the Russian points of view, and shows how each space-faring nation played a vital role in stimulating the work of the other. Scores of rare, unpublished, and powerful photographs recall the urgency and technical creativity of both nations' efforts. The authors recreate in vivid detail the "parallel universes" of the two space exploration programs, with visionaries Wernher von Braun and Sergei Korolev and political leaders John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev at the epicenters. The conflict between countries, and the tense drama of their independent progress, unfolds in vivid prose. Approaching its subject from a uniquely balanced perspective, this important new narrative chronicles the epic race to the moon and back as it has never been told before—and captures the interest of casual browsers and science, space, and history enthusiasts alike.
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Space Explorers

No person has ever been on Venus – the carbon dioxide in its atmosphere is
poisonous to earthlings . But a few space probes have landed on its hot , Windy
surface . ( A space probe is an unmanned research craft . ) . - _ In 1982 , a
Russian ...

Author: Eva Moore

Publisher: Scholastic Inc.

ISBN: 0439114934

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 76

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Carlos and his classmates join Ms. Frizzle on an expedition to outer space where they learn about the solar system.
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Russia in Space

The organizational core of the Russian space programme is the design bureau.
... by Sergei Korolev, who designed the R- 7, Vostok, Voskhod, Soyuz, the N-1,
the Zenit spy satellites and the first generation of lunar and interplanetary probes.

Author: Brian Harvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1852332034

Category: Science

Page: 330

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Until the Apollo-Soyuz flight of 1972, the Russian Space Program was shrouded in such complete secrecy that only rumors of failures (or catastrophes) reached the West. This comprehensive history of the Russian Space Program, from its Sputnik origins to the privatized Mir Space Station, addresses the technical, political, historical, human, and organizational issues and provides a balanced focus on the manned and unmanned programs. It is the first book to assess the Russian Space Program including the 10-year period since the fall of communism.
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Works of Man

By thistimeboth American and Russian space probes had provided much
information about Mars, Venus,Mercury andthe Moon, all ofwhich are madeupof
theheavier elements. Themore distant planets suchas Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus
and ...

Author: Ronald Clark

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781448206216

Category: History

Page: 352

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Works of Man is a chronicle of man's attempts from prehistoric times to the space age to exploit for his own purposes the slowly discerned laws of nature. Exciting, instructive, and eminently readable, this mine of information covers the broad sweep of technological achievements, from the invention of the wheel more than six millennia ago to the miniaturization of the electronic computer. Beginning with a description of the early builders in the days of ancient Babylon, continuing through to the end of the Roman Empire, the author goes on to explain the engineering principles that were gradually developed in the Dark Ages, enabling men to build the medieval cathedrals; to try to drain the Pontine marshes near Rome, the meres of Holland, and the British fenlands; and to raise the new military defenses that transformed warfare. Discussion of the work of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo leads on to the development of steam as a new source of power, and to the growth of civil engineering that followed in Europe and the rest of the world. Further chapters cover the change from sail to steam; canals; railways; the use of electricity; the growth of manned flight; the rise of the plastics industry; nuclear engineering; and the problems of space exploration.
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Let s Work With English Book 2

There the spacecraft can fly around the Earth in paths called orbits , or they may
fly to the Moon or to the inner and outer planets . The men and women who fly in
American spacecraft are called astronauts . Russian space travellers are called ...

Author: Hazel Simmons-McDonald

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 0435987275

Category: English language

Page:

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Seven Wonders of the Rocky Planets and Their Moons

Russia (then part of the Soviet Union) was the first country to fly a space probe (
exploring spacecraft) past the Moon.The Luna 1 came within 3,100 miles (5,000
km) of the Moon in 1959. Over the next ten years, Russia and the United States ...

Author: Ron Miller

Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books

ISBN: 9780761372837

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 80

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Uncover seven wonders of the four rocky planets. From Mercury, we'll watch the Sun appear to perform wild acrobatics. We'll also explore Venus, a planet full of puzzles and beauty. On Mars, we'll visit the tallest mountain and the deepest canyon of all the planets. This planet has hints of water that may be the key to identifying life forms on other planets.
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Satellites and Space Probes

Space station solar panel communications satellite antenna solar panel The
Russian space station Mir was launched in 1986. On Mir, Russian astronauts,
called cosmonauts, live and work alongside astronauts from other countries. A
space ...

Author: Niki Walker

Publisher: New York ; Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont. : Crabtree Pub.

ISBN: 0865056919

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

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Amazing photos show how these remarkable machines are important to communications, weather prediction, and teaching us about our solar system.
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Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration

There was some debate in Jodrell Bank as to whether the huge dish telescope
should be used to track spacecraft at all, but the station had considerable ®
nancial liabilities and the glow of world media publicity attached to the station's
role in ...

Author: Brian Harvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387739762

Category: Science

Page: 318

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This book tells the story of the Soviet and Russian lunar programme, from its origins to the present-day federal Russian space programme. Brian Harvey describes the techniques devised by the USSR for lunar landing, from the LK lunar module to the LOK lunar orbiter and versions tested in Earth’s orbit. He asks whether these systems would have worked and examines how well they were tested. He concludes that political mismanagement rather than technology prevented the Soviet Union from landing cosmonauts on the moon. The book is well timed for the return to the moon by the United States and the first missions there by China and India.
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Exploring the Solar System

But the 1990s would see a revival of planetary space-probe launches and the
beginning of a new age in solar system exploration. ... The former Soviet space
program became the Russian Space Agency, which concentrates mainly on
human ...

Author: Mary Kay Carson

Publisher: Chicago Review Press

ISBN: 9781613740422

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 176

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In this stellar activity book, kids delve into the rich history of space exploration, where telescopes, satellites, probes, landers, and human missions lead to amazing discoveries. Updated to include the recent discovery of Eris which, along with Pluto, has been newly classified as a &“dwarf planet&” by the International Astronomical Union, this cosmic adventure challenges kids to explore the planets and other celestial bodies for themselves through activities such as building a model of a comet using soil, molasses, dry ice, and window cleaner; or creating their own reentry vehicle to safely return an egg to Earth's surface. With biographies of more than 20 space pioneers, specific mission details, a 20-page field guide to the solar system, and plenty of suggestions for further research, this is the ultimate guidebook to exploring the solar system.
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the universe and earth

Closer observation of objects beyond the Moon requires robotic spacecraft (
space probes ) . Russia and the United States have both explored Mars and
Venus using space probes . The National Aeronautics and Space Administration '
s ...

Author:

Publisher: Popular Prakashan

ISBN: 8171549403

Category:

Page:

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