Shale Gas and Fracking

CHAPTER 7 Shale Gas and Climate Contents So Should Shale Gas Be Left in
the Ground? 117 Shale Gas Replacing Coal? 117 Shale Gas Leading to
Renewables? 121 Does Shale Gas Have a Place in Modern Energy? 122
Bibliography ...

Author: Michael Stephenson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128017623

Category: Science

Page: 170

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Shale Gas and Fracking: The Science Behind the Controversy explains the relevant geological principles before examining the peer-reviewed evidence and presenting it through a simple and compelling illustrated narrative. Each chapter focuses on a particular controversy, such contamination of well water with gas from fracking, and follows a similar format: starting with the principles; then detailing peer-reviewed case studies for earthquakes, radioactivity, and climate change; and concluding with a judgment of the general risks involved. Shale Gas and Fracking: The Science Behind the Controversy provides readers with the unbiased information they need to make informed decisions on the controversial issue of fracking. Presents a clear and unbiased view of the pros and cons of fracking in Europe and the US, through a simple and compelling narrative from an informed publicly-funded scientist Includes full-colour diagrams, photographs, and maps to present information clearly and simply Focuses on peer-reviewed, documented examples, particularly of earthquakes and groundwater contamination due to fracking
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2015 Guide to Earthquakes from Fracking Hydraulic Fracturing and Shale Gas Underground Wastewater Disposal New Usgs Report Incorporating Induced Seismicity in Seismic Hazard Model

This unique guide presents up-to-date information about the ongoing issue of earthquakes in states such as Oklahoma and Texas caused by fracking and hydraulic fracturing.

Author: U. S. Government

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 1511872403


Page: 86

View: 674

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This unique guide presents up-to-date information about the ongoing issue of earthquakes in states such as Oklahoma and Texas caused by fracking and hydraulic fracturing. It includes the April 2015 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report, Incorporating Induced Seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model - Results of 2014 Workshop and Sensitivity Studies. Significant strides in science have been made to better understand potential ground shaking from induced earthquakes, which are earthquakes triggered by man-made practices. Earthquake activity has sharply increased since 2009 in the central and eastern United States. The increase has been linked to industrial operations that dispose of wastewater by injecting it into deep wells. The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) report outlines a preliminary set of models to forecast how hazardous ground shaking could be in the areas where sharp increases in seismicity have been recorded. The models ultimately aim to calculate how often earthquakes are expected to occur in the next year and how hard the ground will likely shake as a result. This report looked at the central and eastern United States; future research will incorporate data from the western states as well. This report also identifies issues that must be resolved to develop a final hazard model, which is scheduled for release at the end of the year after the preliminary models are further examined. These preliminary models should be considered experimental in nature and should not be used for decision-making. USGS scientists identified 17 areas within eight states with increased rates of induced seismicity. Since 2000, several of these areas have experienced high levels of seismicity, with substantial increases since 2009 that continue today. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the hazard levels associated with induced earthquakes in these areas, including the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Scientists developed the models by analyzing earthquakes in these zones and considering their rates, locations, maximum magnitude, and ground motions.
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The Human and Environmental Impact of Fracking How Fracturing Shale for Gas Affects Us and Our World

How Fracturing Shale for Gas Affects Us and Our World Madelon L. Finkel Ph.D.
Gt CO2 yr−1.35 This would be equivalent to cumulative emissions of 353 Gt
CO2 between 2010 and 2060, and 707 Gt CO2 by 2100. Thus, keeping below
the ...

Author: Madelon L. Finkel Ph.D.

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440832604

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 237

View: 582

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Fracking for gas trapped in shale could be a game changer in the quest to find alternatives to dirty fossil fuels, but it also has potential for harm. This book provides "one-stop shopping" for everyone who wants to know more about the issues. • Offers a comprehensive, impartial understanding of unconventional natural gas development from many different perspectives by experts in the field • Draws from the findings of the most up-to-date research and discusses areas where scientific findings are yet unclear • Addresses fracking's potential effects on humans, animals, and environmental factors including air quality, water quality, and climate change • Explains the economic, legal, regulatory, and ethical issues surrounding fracking • Examines social and community issues and the industry perspective
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This volume in the Issues series examines the technology, and its potential environmental implications.

Author: Professor Ron Hester

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849739207

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 166

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Fracking - hydraulic fracturing of porous rock to enhance the extraction of fossil fuels - was first attempted in the mid-20th century, but has only recently been adopted as a viable source of hydrocarbons. This volume in the Issues series examines the technology, and its potential environmental implications.
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The Global Impact of Unconventional Shale Gas Development

UK government lifts ban on gas “fracking” (2012) France 24. Available via http://
www.france24. com/en/20121213-uk-government-lifts-ban-gas-fracking.
Accessed 13 Feb 2013 UK shale gas resources doubled in new report (2013) ...

Author: Yongsheng Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319316802

Category: Political Science

Page: 249

View: 517

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This book discusses the economic, political, and environmental issues surrounding the international exploration and exploitation of conventional and unconventional natural gas. Shale gas development in recent years has changed the energy discussion in the US as existing reserves of natural gas coupled with horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make exploitation of these reserves economically feasible; the discussion is quickly becoming international in scope. The potential expansion of natural gas development impacts many regions of the globe and spans multiple perspectives. In a volatile international climate, one of intense geopolitical conflict between Russia and the West, economic slowdowns in Europe and China, military conflicts in the Middle East and northern Africa, and widening income disparity in the U.S., a relatively inexpensive and plentiful energy source like shale gas could play a key role in mitigating such conflicts. In an energy interdependent global community, however, multiple factors such as oil prices, differing rates of exploration, environmental concerns, strategic initiatives, institutional changes, legal and regulatory issues, and actions of the nations involved all have the potential to influence future outcomes. This book discusses each of these in turn, detailing the issues most prevalent in each geographical area. The first volume to provide a comprehensive global view of the impacts of shale gas development, this book fills a gap in the current research literature, providing vital information for the scholarly community and the public alike. This book will be of interest to researchers and students of economics, energy policy, public administration, and international relations as well as policy makers and residents of the regions that are experiencing shale gas development.
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Alternative Energy and Shale Gas Encyclopedia

On December 6, 2011, the Northern Ireland Assembly passed a motion calling for
a moratorium on hydraulic fracking. But no ... Preese Hall shale gas fracturing:
review & recommendations for induced seismic mitigation. Department of Energy

Author: Jay H. Lehr

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470894415

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 912

View: 941

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A comprehensive depository of all information relating to the scientific and technological aspects of Shale Gas and Alternative Energy Conveniently arranged by energy type including Shale Gas, Wind, Geothermal, Solar, and Hydropower Perfect first-stop reference for any scientist, engineer, or student looking for practical and applied energy information Emphasizes practical applications of existing technologies, from design and maintenance, to operating and troubleshooting of energy systems and equipment Features concise yet complete entries, making it easy for users to find the required information quickly, without the need to search through long articles
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Economics of Unconventional Shale Gas Development

Ilia Murtazashvili Abstract The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal
drilling unlocked the economic potential of shale gas in the United States.
However, the regulatory response to shale gas has varied substantially. This
chapter ...

Author: William E. Hefley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319114996

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 246

View: 787

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This book examines the economics and related impacts of unconventional shale gas development. While focusing on the Marcellus and Utica Shales in the Mid-Atlantic region, additional insights from other regions are included to provide a broader view of these issues. Shale gas development in recent years has changed the energy discussion in the US, as existing reserves of natural gas coupled with horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make exploitation of these reserves economically feasible. The importance of natural gas is seen as likely to continue to expand over the coming years, and is expected to increase even further with environmental considerations, such as greenhouse gas emissions. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing producing natural gas from deposits such as the Marcellus Shale is making the US a net producer of natural gas. Previous studies have examined the economic impact of exploration and production in the region. Other studies have addressed legal, environmental, biodiversity, and public health impacts of unconventional shale development. This is the first volume to focus solely on the economics and related financial impacts of this development. This book not only fills the research gap, but also provides information that policy makers and the public need to better understand this pressing issue.
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Shale Gas Production Processes

5.1 INTRODUCTION Natural gas production from hydrocarbon-rich shale
formations (shale gas) is one of the most rapidly ... The process of hydraulic
fracturing (fracking) in a shale gas well requires significant volumes of water and
causes ...

Author: James G. Speight

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780124045514

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 170

View: 868

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The extraction of natural gas from shale formations is no simple task and perhaps the most expensive when compared to over unconventional gases. Although, its popularity has grown over the years, there is much to be done to make their production and processing more cost-effective. Brief but comprehensive, Shale Gas Production Processes begins with an overview of the chemistry, engineering and technology of shale gas. This is quickly followed by self-contained chapters concerning new and evolving process technologies and their applications as well as environmental regulations. Written in an easy to read format, Shale Gas Production Processes will prove useful for those scientists and engineers already engaged in fossil fuel science and technology as well as scientists, non-scientists, engineers, and non-engineers who wish to gain a general overview or update of the science and technology of shale gas. In addition, the book discusses methods used to reduce environmental footprint and improve well performance. Updates on the evolving processes and new processes Provides overview of the chemistry, engineering, and technology of shale gas Guides the reader through the latest environmental regulation regarding production and processing of shale
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HC 284 Energy Generation in Wales Shale Gas

Concerns have been expressed that the extraction of shale gas through the
fracking process may be detrimental to the local environment and to local
communities. Areas of possible environmental concern relate to the large volume
of water ...

Author: Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Welsh Affairs Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215072962

Category: Natural gas

Page: 37

View: 236

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Shale gas represents an opportunity for Wales but it must not come at the expense of Wales's natural environment. Both the UK and Welsh Governments must consider environmental risks, including the traffic and noise caused by commercial shale gas operations as well as the visual impact and other environmental risks associated with fracking. The issue of treatment, transportation and disposal of wastewater is a growing concern: toxic and radioactive water must not be allowed to contaminate water courses. The Government forecasts that nearly 70% of the UK's gas supply will be imported by 2025. It is vital that the UK identifies new sources of gas if it is to safeguard the UK's security of supply. Shale gas production across the UK is currently at the exploratory stage and there is no good data yet on the amount of shale gas in Wales. Should considerable reserves of shale gas be present-as industry representatives predict-it could be a decade before a viable shale gas industry is created in Wales. The UK Government and the Welsh Government should work with commercial companies and others to provide a reliable range of estimates of shale gas available in Wales and assess the overall impact of shale gas supply on the level and mix of energy produced in Wales and the UK. The Welsh Government should also begin to consider how the employment opportunities presented by shale gas production could be maximised
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The Real Cost of Fracking

In shale gas country, this is also where the riches lay, deep underground. In
Pennsylvania, some people embrace the shale gas revolution, hoping for a better
life. Others acceptit, hoping forthebest andpraying that it will workout for them.

Author: Michelle Bamberger

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 9780807084946

Category: Nature

Page: 248

View: 989

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A pharmacologist and a veterinarian pull back the curtain on the human and animal health effects of hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking” Across the country, fracking—the extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing—is being touted as the nation’s answer to energy independence and a fix for a flagging economy. Drilling companies assure us that the process is safe, politicians push through drilling legislation without a serious public-health debate, and those who speak out are marginalized, their silence purchased by gas companies and their warnings about the dangers of fracking stifled. The Real Cost of Fracking pulls back the curtain on how this toxic process endangers the environment and harms people, pets, and livestock. Michelle Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Robert Oswald, a pharmacologist, combine their expertise to show how contamination at drilling sites translates into ill health and heartbreak for families and their animals. By giving voice to the people at ground zero of the fracking debate, the authors vividly illustrate the consequences of fracking and issue an urgent warning to all of us: fracking poses a dire threat to the air we breathe, the water we drink, and even our food supply. Bamberger and Oswald reveal the harrowing experiences of small farmers who have lost their animals, their livelihoods, and their peace of mind, and of rural families whose property values have plummeted as their towns have been invaded by drillers. At the same time, these stories give us hope, as people band together to help one another and courageously fight to reclaim their communities. The debate over fracking speaks to a core dilemma of contemporary life: we require energy to live with modern conveniences, but what degree of environmental degradation, health risks, and threats to our food supply are we willing to accept to obtain that energy? As these stories demonstrate, the stakes couldn’t be higher, and this is an issue that none of us can afford to ignore. From the Hardcover edition.
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HC 856 Environmental Risks of Fracking

Exploratory drilling for shale gas has begun in the UK and the Government is
encouraging fracking. It has introduced tax concessions and is seeking through
its Infrastructure Bill to ease the process for fracking operations, including through

Author: Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Environmental Audit Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215081179

Category: Hydraulic fracturing

Page: 46

View: 823

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Exploratory drilling for shale gas has begun in the UK and the Government is encouraging fracking. It has introduced tax concessions and is seeking through its Infrastructure Bill to ease the process for fracking operations, including through proposals for an automatic right of access to "deep-level land" for exploratory drilling and extraction. Extensive production of unconventional gas through fracking is inconsistent with the UK's obligations under the Climate Change Act and its carbon budgets regime, which encompasses our contribution to efforts to keep global temperature rise below two degrees. Shale gas, like 'conventional gas', is not low carbon, and the objective of government policy should be to reduce the carbon intensity of energy whatever its source. Shale gas cannot be regarded as a 'transitional' or 'bridging' fuel. Any large scale extraction of shale gas in the UK is likely to be at least 10-15 years away, and therefore cannot drive dirtier coal from the energy system because by that time it is likely that unabated coal-fired power generation will have been phased out to meet EU emissions directives. It is also unlikely to be commercially viable unless developed at a significant scale, to be able to compete against a growing renewable energy sector, but large-scale fracking will not be able to be accommodated within still tightening carbon budgets. There is in any case little evidence to suggest that fracking could be undertaken at the scale needed to be commercially viable in the UK or that it will bring gas prices down significantly.
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The Fracking Debate

New York City in particular could benefit greatly from the Shale Revolution. A
network of pipelines already delivers gas to nearly every home stove in the five
boroughs. The heating boilers in the basements of most residential and
commercial ...

Author: Michael Marcovici

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9783732287284

Category: Nature

Page: 244

View: 428

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The search for cheap, plentiful and reliable energy has become one of the holy grails of modern industrial society. Since the Western technologically-advanced nations own supplies began to deplete from the 1970s those economies became increasingly dependent on foreign oil, especially from volatile (and potentially hostile) areas in the Middle East, and gas from the world’s major producer - Russia. The discovery of large deposits of shale oil and gas in North America and across other parts of the world has been a major game changer as it puts the control of energy back in the hands of the US and its European partners. These countries had been trying to develop alternative, renewable resources for many years without any real major breakthrough and these sources still only offer a very small percentage of the total (and growing) energy requirements. Shale gas and oil offers abundant supply within the geographical areas of US and Europe and self-sufficiency for, potentially, another century. But the method of extracting these resources – fracking – has become an area of major controversy, sparking one of the great political and economic debates of modern times. Shale gas and oil promises massive benefits to the US and other economies; but are the health and environmental risks just too great?
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Environmental Sociology

fracking. In May, 2013, the Association of German Breweries voiced its grave
concern to the federal cabinet that drilling for shale gas using the method of
hydraulic fracturing or fracking could violate the 500-year-old Bavarian purity law
by ...

Author: John Hannigan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317752004

Category: Political Science

Page: 258

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The third edition of John Hannigan’s classic undergraduate text has been fully updated and revised to highlight contemporary trends and controversies within global environmental sociology. Environmental Sociology offers a distinctive, balanced treatment of environmental issues, reconciling Hannigan’s much-cited model of the social construction of environmental problems and controversies with an environmental justice perspective that stresses inequality and toxic threats to local communities.
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Investing in the Renewable Power Market

172 CONCLUSION As practiced now, natural shale gas fracking puts ready
money profits into specific land owners' pockets. It is not yet clear whether there is
a permanent economic improvement or a decline in the economy of many rural ...

Author: Tom Fogarty

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118234785

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 715

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The financial challenges facing clean energy installations The path to the widespread adoption of renewable energy is littered with major technological legal, political, and financial challenges. Investing in the Renewable Power Market is a reality check for the mass roll out of green energy and its financial dominance of the world energy market, focusing on real energy costs and global energy needs over the next decade. If green energy is to be truly successful, the market must be properly understood, so that dreams of a green future do not lead to actual energy nightmares. The first book to cover the major investing challenges and monetary constraints placed on electric power companies as they race to meet their green energy requirements, Investing in the Renewable Power Market explains how generating electricity is totally different from other energy enterprises in that it is highly regulated and its product cannot be stored. This combination greatly affects the finances of renewable power and influences how investors should navigate the energy market. To help the reader better understand the current state of the alternative energy industry, the book: Details the challenges facing green energy, such as the fact that it is priced compared to natural gas, which is currently at an all-time low Analyzes real energy costs and the global demand for energy over the next decade Describes why, in the short term, investment opportunities with renewable power will be with financial and operational restructurings The green energy market is currently facing enormous challenges, but Investing in the Renewable Power Market explains the real costs of energy, the future of the energy market, and how to profit in both the long and short term.
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Shale Gas in New Brunswick

A Focus on Water Resources Tom Al University of New Brunswick In thecontext
ofliquid and gas hydrocarbon resources, the term unconventionalrefers to
hydrocarbon reservoirs thatrequire stimulation, generally with hydraulic fracturing
(or ...

Author: Richard Saillant

Publisher: Canadian Institute for Research on Public Policy and Public Administration

ISBN: 9780886593056

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 390

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Shale gas is to New Brunswick today what the Free Trade Agreement with the United States was to Canada a quarter century ago: a deeply controversial, highly polarizing issue over which tempers quickly flare up. As was the case with the free trade debate, the public discourse on shale gas has degenerated into a war of words, with most citizens left in the middle with very little information they can trust to secure a better understanding of what is at stake. This study aims to fill part of the wide information gap on shale gas in New Brunswick. While substantial knowledge has been built in recent years on the impact—both positive and negative—of shale gas on communities where it is actively being exploited, much less is available for New Brunswick. Yet, as this document makes clear, no two shales are alike. In order to understand the economic, environmental, social, and other consequences of shale gas, we cannot rely exclusively on other jurisdictions: we also need to investigate New Brunswick’s specific context. Virtually all of the contributors to this study—well-established, credible authorities in their respective fields—are associated with New Brunswick universities in one way or another.
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The USA first produced shale gas in 1989 by using normal drilling methods
which proved expensive as each well gave little gas ... Shalegas exploration
entails what is now called 'fracking' or vertical drilling followed by horizontal
drilling using ...

Author: Soli J. Arceivala

Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9789339203719

Category: Green technology


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Fracking is the process of using high pressure salt water to break open the deep rock beneath our feet.

Author: John H. Graves

Publisher: John H Graves

ISBN: 9780983573104

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 389

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Energy opportunities and challenges
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Water without Borders

Some of the activities likely to trigger this eventuality are recent technological
developments related to carbon capture and storage, as well as hydraulic
fracturing, or “fracking,” in shale regions for natural gas. In terms of the first major
concern, ...

Author: Emma S. Norman

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9781442698208

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 916

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Since 1909, the waters along the Canada-US border have been governed in accordance with the Boundary Water Treaty, but much has changed in the last 100 years. This engaging volume brings together experts from both sides of the border to examine the changing relationship between Canada and the US with respect to shared waters, as well as the implications of these changes for geopolitics and the environment. Water without Borders? is a timely publication given the increased attention to shared water issues, and particularly because 2013 is the United Nations International Year of Water Cooperation. Water without Borders? is designed to help readers develop a balanced understanding of the most pressing shared water issues between Canada and the United States. The contributors explore possible frictions between governance institutions and contemporary management issues, illustrated through analyses of five specific transboundary water “flashpoints.” The volume offers both a historical survey of transboundary governance mechanisms and a forward-looking assessment of new models of governance that will allow us to manage water wisely in the future.
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Examines the basics of hydraulic fracturing and introduces economic and political benefits of fracking and the possible dangers associated with it.

Author: Alex Prud'homme

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199311255

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 144

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Examines the basics of hydraulic fracturing and introduces economic and political benefits of fracking and the possible dangers associated with it.
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Environmental Studies A Practitioner s Approach

Shale gas exploration entails what is called “fracking” (hydraulic fracturing) or
vertical drilling followed by horizontal drilling. Shale gas is found in tight
reservoirs that have poor permeability. Shale gas requires large number of wells
as the ...


Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9781259006050

Category: Educational innovations

Page: 322

View: 568

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