Social Mobility in Developing Countries

Social mobility research is ongoing, with substantive findings in different disciplines—typically with researchers in isolation from each other. A key contribution of this book is the pulling together of the emerging streams of knowledge.

Author: Vegard Iversen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192650733

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

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Social mobility is the hope of economic development and the mantra of a good society. There are disagreements about what constitutes social mobility, but there is broad agreement that people should have roughly equal chances of success regardless of their economic status at birth. Concerns about rising inequality have engendered a renewed interest in social mobility—especially in the developing world. However, efforts to construct the databases and meet the standards required for conventional analyses of social mobility are at a preliminary stage and need to be complemented by innovative, conceptual, and methodological advances. If forms of mobility have slowed in the West, then we might be entering an age of rigid stratification with defined boundaries between the always-haves and the never-haves-which does not augur well for social stability. Social mobility research is ongoing, with substantive findings in different disciplines—typically with researchers in isolation from each other. A key contribution of this book is the pulling together of the emerging streams of knowledge. Generating policy-relevant knowledge is a principal concern. Three basic questions frame the study of diverse aspects of social mobility in the book. How to assess the extent of social mobility in a given development context when the datasets by conventional measurement techniques are unavailable? How to identify drivers and inhibitors of social mobility in particular developing country contexts? How to acquire the knowledge required to design interventions to raise social mobility, either by increasing upward mobility or by lowering downward mobility?
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Beyond Poverty Escapes Social Mobility in Developing Countries

While social mobility in advanced economies has received extensive scholarly attention, crucial knowledge gaps remain about the patterns and determinants of income, educational, and occupational mobility in developing countries.

Author: Vegard Iversen

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1289178407

Category:

Page:

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While social mobility in advanced economies has received extensive scholarly attention, crucial knowledge gaps remain about the patterns and determinants of income, educational, and occupational mobility in developing countries. Focusing on intergenerational mobility, we find that estimates often differ greatly for the same country, depending on the concept and measure of mobility used, on variable constructions and on the data set utilized. There is also wide variation in mobility across regions and social groups. We discuss data and income and other variable measurement challenges when agriculture and the informal sector absorb most of the workforce, and illustrate why occupational classifications and widely used mobility measures may perform less well in such settings. Factors beyond those featuring in the literature on advanced economies are plausible determinants of social mobility, particularly of what we call moderate and large ascents (and descents), in developing country contexts. We highlight the lack of in-depth understanding of the multiple and often localized hurdles to such more pronounced progress. Similar knowledge gaps exist for large descents, which give rise to particularly profound concerns in low-income settings. We report and touch on the implications of suggestive findings of a disconnect between educational and occupational mobility. Innovative research requires critical engagement with theory and with methodology, identification, and data challenges that may overlap or deviate notably from those encountered in advanced economies.
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Social Mobility Education and Development in Tunisia

To date there have been very few attempts to answer this question, which makes James Allman's study of the impact of formal schooling on Tunisian youth of interest to educators and planners throughout the developing world.

Author: James Allman

Publisher: Brill Archive

ISBN: 9004058753

Category: Education

Page: 172

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A revolution in education and literacy has taken place throughout the Third World within a generation. The vast majority of parents in developing nations are illiterate, while the majority of children, by the time they reach their teens, have enough formal education to assure more or less permanent literacy. To be sure, the quality of this education, the duration of the schooling experience and the equality of educational opportunity for males and females, rich and poor, urban, town and rural dwellers varies considerably from country to country. However, the fact remains that for the first time in history, formal education has become available to the majority of mankind. The consequences of this new state of affairs must surely be significant. For example, children have the means quickly to acquire more knowledge than their parents possess, which might call into question traditional relationships of respect and honor accorded to older people, based on their greater life experience and knowledge of the ways of the world. Or, as new jobs or occupational roles become available in societies, the superior education of the young might give them competitive advantage over their elders in access to new jobs, higher pay, or other means to enhance the quality of life of their families. Are these changes taking place? To date there have been very few attempts to answer this question, which makes James Allman's study of the impact of formal schooling on Tunisian youth of interest to educators and planners throughout the developing world. -- From JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/218264 (May 2, 2013).
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Population Mobility in Developing Countries

He draws comparisons between the historical experience of Europe and patterns in today's developing world. The book is divided into three parts.

Author: Ronald Skeldon

Publisher: Burns & Oates

ISBN: STANFORD:36105038641325

Category: Migration, Internal

Page: 273

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The thesis of this study is that the forms of population migration change systematically over periods of time and from area to area. Using data from several parts of the world, the author shows how population mobility is linked to wider social, economic and political change, and that it is closely related to such processes as the rise of nationalism. He draws comparisons between the historical experience of Europe and patterns in today's developing world. The book is divided into three parts. Part I examines the problem of the measurement of population movements and reviews studies of mobility based mainly on the historical record. This part is concerned with the patterns of mobility in pre-industrial and early industrializing societies as a basis of comparison with more recent patterns. The specific focus is on mobility and the peasantry in order to examine critically the notion that peasants either are or were mobile. Part II contains detailed descriptions of migration in a number of countries, particularly Peru and Papua New Guinea. The author looks back on earlier work and attempts to review earlier conclusions in the light of recent research and data. Part III deals with certain changes that occur in the way they do. The central theme is the penetration of a European-dominated system and the two-way relationships between the factors giving rise to particular patterns of mobility and the effect that these patterns of mobility have on society and the economy. A separate chapter examines the ability of governments or other institutions to guide the changes in particular directions through migration policy.
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Social Structure and Mobility in Economic Development

The foundation of this volume is the notion that the several processes of change constituting economic and social development are systematically interrelated.

Author: Seymour Lipset

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351306232

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 414

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The foundation of this volume is the notion that the several processes of change constituting economic and social development are systematically interrelated. The essence of development is the appearance of rapid rates of increases in many different indices--output per capita, political participation, literacy and the like. These quantitative changes are, however, commonly accompanied by vast changes in the social structure--markets emerge, political bureaucracies arise, and new educational systems appear. Written by the leading authorities on the subject, this group of papers tackles the causes and consequences of social mobility. Each author brings his particular skills to bear on various aspects of the problem in studies of persons moving from rural to urban settings, from one kind of industry to another and from one prestige level to another. Several of the papers review the theoretical and methodological issues involved in comparative research on social mobility while others compare and contrast traditional and modern stratification systems. Various papers explore the economic, religious and psychological basis of social mobility, concluding with enquiry into the consequences of rapid mobility, especially in terms of the political stability of developing nations. Because social mobility is a central consideration in any study of economic and social change, every student of change will use this pioneering reference source as a text for all future research. Contributors include Otis Dudley Duncan, Harold L. Wilensky, Michael G. Smith, Bert F. Hoselitz, Wilbert E. Moore, Natalie Rogoff Rams°y, Gideon Sjoberg, Reinhard Bendix, Harry Crockett, David Matza, Lester Seligman, and Gino Germani. Neil J. Smelser is emeritus professor, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley. Seymour Martin Lipset was professor of sociology and director of the Institute of International Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.
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Social Mobility in Developing Countries

If the same measure , applied in a study of social mobility in developing countries , generates a similar response to a descent into poverty , this is much less straightforward . Elucidating the properties of and how well widely used ...

Author: Vegard Iversen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192896858

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 728

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Combines research from different disciplines to assess social mobility in developing countries.
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Inequality and Social Mobility in Brazil

Sociologists, economists, political scientists, development specialists, and all with an interest in contemporary Latin America will find Pastore's work to be both a stimulating analysis and a rich source of data for further research.

Author: José Pastore

Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press

ISBN: STANFORD:36105037416133

Category: History

Page: 194

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It is commonly believed that there is little or no social and economic mobility in developing societies, that immobility is indeed part of a larger picture of inequality. Certainly this view has been taken of Brazil, a rapidly developing capitalist society with one of the world's most unequal patterns of income distribution. José Pastore's landmark study, then, will evoke sharp debate and controversy among social scientists. Employing a massive and sophisticated primary database, he uncovers a surprising amount of mobility in contemporary Brazilian society. In fact, he postulates, the society's inherent inequality is in large part related to the high degree of upward mobility of the Brazilian population. Particularly in the last three decades, the upward mobility of the middle classes, says Pastore, has “stretched” the Brazilian social structure, thus allowing for increased inequality. Pastore's findings will prompt a reevaluation of many long-held economic and sociological tenets, not only concerning Brazil but also other rapidly developing capitalist societies. His work will also contribute significantly to the present political debate on capitalist growth strategies for Third World nations. Sociologists, economists, political scientists, development specialists, and all with an interest in contemporary Latin America will find Pastore's work to be both a stimulating analysis and a rich source of data for further research.
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Can good Social Mobility News be bad and Vice Versa

Limited attention has been paid to how well social mobility measures debated and used to study industrial countries perform in analysis of low-income settings.

Author: Vegard Iversen

Publisher:

ISBN: 9292567705

Category:

Page:

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Limited attention has been paid to how well social mobility measures debated and used to study industrial countries perform in analysis of low-income settings. Following brief, selective reviews of the axiomatic and econometric literatures, three mobility concepts illustrate how properties that appear innocuous in industrial country analysis become problematic when downward mobility includes descents into destitution. For origin-independence measures-the most widely used in research on developing countries to date-axiomatic propriety and cognizance of co-residency-induced and other more well-known sources of estimation bias are not enough. This paper adopts the term 'perverse fluidity' from sociology to define the estimate bias attributable to intergenerational poverty descents. Using simple experiments and data from India, poverty descents generate perverse fluidity biases in intergenerational regression and correlation coefficients of up to 50 per cent, suggesting that seemingly 'good' mobility news may be 'bad' and that mobility comparisons are more precarious than acknowledged so far.
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Inequality and the Family in Latin America

In this paper, social mobility is measured by looking at the extent to which family background determines socioeconomic success.

Author: Ricardo Hausmann

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822028585404

Category: Families

Page: 48

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In this paper, social mobility is measured by looking at the extent to which family background determines socioeconomic success. An index of social mobility for developing countries is proposed based on the correlation of schooling gaps between siblings.
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