Sonochemistry

This volume aims to shed light on the diversified applications of ultrasound and its significant role as a green chemical pathway. Sonochemistry deals with the effect of ultrasonic waves on chemical systems.

Author: Suresh C. Ameta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351592994

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 811

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Traditionally heat and light are thought as energy sources to drive a particular chemical reaction, but now ultrasound is a promising energy source for this purpose. The collapse of a bubble generates a wide range of high temperatures and pressures, and therefore, use of ultrasound has a considerable potential in chemical and allied sciences. Ultrasound-assisted reactions are green and economically viable alternatives to conventional techniques. This new volume presents a complete picture of ultrasound-assisted reactions and technologies that can be used in organic synthesis, polymer synthesis and degradation, nanomaterials, wastewater treatment, food ingredients and products, pharmaceutical applications, bioenergy applications, and more. This volume aims to shed light on the diversified applications of ultrasound and its significant role as a green chemical pathway. Sonochemistry deals with the effect of ultrasonic waves on chemical systems. It has green value because of non-hazardous acoustic radiation and is therefore duly recognized as a green chemistry by synthetic chemists as well as environmentalists. There is no direct interaction of ultrasound with molecular species, but the observed chemical and physical effects of ultrasound are due to the cavitational collapse, which produces drastic conditions of temperature and pressure locally. It induces the formation of various chemical species, which cannot be easily attained under conventional conditions. Sometimes, these species are responsible for driving towards an unusual reactivity in molecular entities. This book, Sonochemistry: An Emerging Green Technology, provides the complete development of sonochemistry, starting with an introduction and basic concepts of sonochemistry and proceeding on to different types of sonochemical reactions, instrumentation, use of ultrasound in driving particular chemical reactions, and its applications in various fields, such as polymer synthesis, decontamination of water and wastewater, preparation of nanomaterials, food technology, pharmaceutical sciences, etc. The book also briefly discusses some areas that utilize ultrasounds of different frequencies. These include food products and their processing; anaerobic digestion of waste; and medical applications such as ultrasonography, sonodynamic therapy, drug delivery, etc. Sonochemistry will be successfully used on an industrial scale in pharmaceutical drugs, polymers, nanomaterials, food technology, material science, biogas production, etc. in years to come and will be an established green chemical technology of the future.
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Sonochemistry New Opportunities For Green Chemistry

Sonochemistry: New Opportunities for Green Chemistry first introduces the basics of ultrasonic waves and the history of sonochemistry before moving on to look at acoustic cavitation and the estimation of ultrasonic parameters.

Author: Chatel Gregory

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781786341297

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 165

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The application of ultrasound waves to chemical reactions — sonochemistry — has huge potential for innovation in eco-friendly and eco-efficient chemistry. Sonochemistry: New Opportunities for Green Chemistry first introduces the basics of ultrasonic waves and the history of sonochemistry before moving on to look at acoustic cavitation and the estimation of ultrasonic parameters. After this comes a discussion of the equipment needed for experimentation with sonochemistry. Finally there is an in-depth look at green sonochemistry in different fields of research, covering concepts such as new combinations of ultrasound with ionic liquids, microwave irradiation, enzyme combination, and sono-assisted electrochemistry. In conclusion, distinguished sonochemists from around the world share their opinions on the green sonochemistry, and their predictions in the field.Undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry, and practitioners of ultrasonic technology will gain a unique insight into the opportunities and challenges facing sonochemistry today in its theoretical and practical implementation.
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Sonochemistry

A General Introduction to Sonochemistry; Sonochemistry - the General Principles; Ultrasound in Diagnosis, Inspection and Monitoring; Power Ultrasound; A Survey of Commercially Available Sources of Ultrasound Suitable for Sonochemistry; ...

Author: T. J. Mason

Publisher:

ISBN: 0851862934

Category: Science

Page: 157

View: 242

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This book provides a broad introduction to the very wide range of uses of ultrasound in chemistry. It is written by experts in the field with contributions from both chemists and engineers. In this way the book places sonochemistry in its true position as a hybrid subject, requiring a broad knowledge of several disciplines to appreciate fully the use of ultrasound in a particular specialism.
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Handbook on Applications of Ultrasound

Through a review of the current status of chemical and physical science and engineering in developing more environmentally friendly and less toxic synthetic processes, this book highlights many existing applications and the enormous ...

Author: Dong Chen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439842065

Category: Science

Page: 739

View: 425

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Ultrasonic irradiation and the associated sonochemical and sonophysical effects are complementary techniques for driving more efficient chemical reactions and yields. Sonochemistry—the chemical effects and applications of ultrasonic waves—and sustainable (green) chemistry both aim to use less hazardous chemicals and solvents, reduce energy consumption, and increase product selectivity. A comprehensive collection of knowledge, Handbook on Applications of Ultrasound covers the most relevant aspects linked to and linking green chemistry practices to environmental sustainability through the uses and applications of ultrasound-mediated and ultrasound-assisted biological, biochemical, chemical, and physical processes. Chapters are presented in the areas of: Medical applications Drug and gene delivery Nanotechnology Food technology Synthetic applications and organic chemistry Anaerobic digestion Environmental contaminants degradation Polymer chemistry Industrial syntheses and processes Reactor design Electrochemical systems Combined ultrasound−microwave technologies While the concepts of sonochemistry have been known for more than 80 years, in-depth understanding of this phenomenon continues to evolve. Through a review of the current status of chemical and physical science and engineering in developing more environmentally friendly and less toxic synthetic processes, this book highlights many existing applications and the enormous potential of ultrasound technology to upgrade present industrial, agricultural, and environmental processes.
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Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence

The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows.

Author: L.A. Crum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401592154

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 931

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Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures and detailed research articles means that the book can serve as an introduction as well as a comprehensive and detailed review of these two interesting and topical subjects.
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Sonochemistry Cavitation

Nevertheless , sonochemistry , one of the most impetuously developing fields of
modern chemistry , is less known to scientists than radiation chemistry or
plasmochemistry , photochemistry , mechanochemistry and other branches of
high ...

Author: Margulis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 2881248497

Category: Science

Page: 543

View: 694

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Sonochemistry and cavitation are rapidly increasing in importance in modern chemistry as a result of many significant achievements made in recent years. In this current and comprehensive text, the author clearly details and illustrates these developments as well as the fundamental concepts. Much attention is given to the fundamental problems, such as the general kinetics of sonochemical reactions: energetic yields; the principles of the cavitation diffusion theory; the place of acoustic energy among other physical methods of action on matter; and the new electrical theory of cavitation phenomena, sonochemical reactions and sonoluminescence initiation (the theory developed by Professor Margulis). Results of low-frequency acoustic fields investigations are also observed. Special attention is given to the influence of acoustic fields on chemical reactions in nonaqueous systems, catalytic processes and the initiation of oscillating reactions. This publication is designed to broaden the application of ultrasound in chemical technology and improve the efficiency of existing production processes. Its comprehensiveness makes it a practical handbook which will prove invaluable to a broad readership amongst chemistry, engineering and physics undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and industrialists working in the fields of sonochemistry, ultrasonic and chemical technology, high energy chemistry, acoustics and biology.
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Advances in Sonochemistry

Gondrexon, N., Renaudin, V., PeÂtrier, C., CleÂment, M., and Boldo, P.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 5 (1998) 1. Busnel, R.-G., and Picard, D. Comptes
rendus, 234 (1952) 1217. Entezari, M. H., and Kruus, P. Ultrasonics
Sonochemistry, 3 (1996) ...

Author: T.J. Mason

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080521606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 284

View: 310

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Ultrasound in Environmental Protection focuses on one of the more significant developments in the subject - environmental remediation - providing an overview on both the fundamentals and applications of ultrasound in environmental protection, incorporating recent research and state-of-the-art information on the scientific basis, modes of use, and engineering developments. A broad spectrum of topics are covered: reactor design, sonochemical pollutant degradation, integrated unltrasonic/ biological treatment, ultrasound in disinfection, leaching by ultrasound, and ultrasonically enhanced removal of suspended solids. Ultrasound is generated and applied at frequencies from 20 kHz to several MHz. The physio-chemical parameters of the sonicated media, reactor design, applied intensity, and duration of sonication, dramatically influence the effects that can be achieved. It is hoped that this compilation will contribute to a better understanding and further development of sonochemistry as a clean technology not only for environmental remediation but also more generally. The foundation of this compilation was formed during a workshop that was held at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, in March 1999. This was the first workshop to be devoted to 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' and brought together experience and knowledge from a broad spectrum of disciplines including chemistry, biology, engineering, equipment manufacturing, and plant design.
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Current Trends in Sonochemistry

This book provides up-to-date coverage of the latest research in this still relatively new area and includes an introductory chapter to assist newcomers to the subject.

Author: Gareth J. Price

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B5183736

Category: Science

Page: 183

View: 138

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This book provides up-to-date coverage of the latest research in this still relatively new area and includes an introductory chapter to assist newcomers to the subject.
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Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems

I began my research into Sonochemistry over 30 years ago now and at that time it
was for me an exploration of the unknown. In 1988 with my colleague Phil
Lorimer we wrote the first book to carry in its title the word Sonochemistry with a ...

Author: Pankaj

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048138876

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 649

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Despite the fact that chemical applications of ultrasound are now widely acknowledged, a detailed presentation of inorganic systems covering nano-particles, catalysis, aqueous chemistry of metallic solutions and their redox characteristics, both from a theoretical and experimental perspective has eluded researchers of this field. Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems fills this gap and presents a concise and thorough review of this fascinating area of Sonochemistry in a single volume.
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Synthetic Organic Sonochemistry

On the other hand, the aim of the classification is to broaden the original scope of
sonochemistry and suggest more experiments. It is within this widening
perspective that we intend now to delineate lines for future exploration. 1.1. A
GENERAL ...

Author: Jean-Louis Luche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306459167

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 251

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TEAN-LOUIS LUCHE A French poet of this eentury, Pierre Mae Orlan, wrote "Adventure does not exist, it is only in the mind of he who is pursuing it, and, as soon as it is at one's finger tips, it vanishes to come back to life, far away, in a different shape, at the frontiers of imagination". This sentence could be used to define the adventure that many sonochemists experienced. Most of them did not even suspect that the "laboratory trick" they were using was the first contact with a considerable amount of science. If a personal note is allowed here, it ean be interesting to mention the part played by chance in my involvement in sonochemistry. Almost 20 years ago, we had to perform an apparently simple Grignard reaetion with n-butylmagnesium bromide and geranial, but the results were repeatedly unsatisfactory. The one-pot Barbier technique was attempted, also without success. From my studies at the University, I imagined that the failure of the latter reaction could be caused by a common phenomenon known by solid state chemists as passivation, which in some cases can be overcome by ultrasonication. By chance, an ultrasonie bath was sitting on the next beneh, borrowed to clean some equipment. We clamped our reluctant reaction mixture into the bath, the reaction proceeded vigorously, and ... the adventure started. Without knowing anything about cavitation, high energies, ete., we had an illustration of Goethe's word "Am Anfang war die Tat" (at the Beginning was the Act).
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Sonochemistry

The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes.

Author: Juan Carlos Colmenares

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319542713

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 421

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The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
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Practical Sonochemistry

Author's preface The first edition of this book was published in 1991 when
sonochemistry was relatively young. At that time there was no text available that
addressed the basic information required for laboratory sonochemistry and it was
 ...

Author: T J Mason

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9781782420620

Category: Science

Page: 166

View: 179

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This updated version of Practical Sonochemistry for advanced students and teachers in chemistry and chemical engineering conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound. Equipment now on the market offers a wider range of frequencies with more reproducible experimentation and a variety of scale-up systems. The book provides detailed descriptions of newer ultrasonic equipment and its applications, and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance. Modern exercises familiarise readers with recent sonochemical operations. The book also includes methods for estimating ultrasonic energy entering the system (dosimetry), which will standardise sonochemical methodology and enable practitioners to reproduce results from other laboratories. Conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound Provides detailed descriptions of new ultrasonic equipment and its applications and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance Includes methods for estimating ultrasonic energy entering the system (dosimetry), which will standardise sonochemical methodology and enable practitioners to reproduce results from other laboratories
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Advances in Sonochemistry

This volume focuses on the use of ultrasound in food processing as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with ultrasound.

Author: Timothy J. Mason

Publisher:

ISBN: 1559387939

Category: Sonochemistry

Page: 295

View: 879

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Applied Sonochemistry

Most of these uses depend on the generation of acoustic cavitation in liquid media but this text, while underlining the importance of the physics and mathematics of cavitation, mainly concentrates on applications of the technology.

Author: Timothy J. Mason

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: UOM:39015055599198

Category: Science

Page: 303

View: 118

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Power ultrasound has been used for many years in two specific industrial areas: cleaning and plastic welding. Over the last ten years an increasing interest has been shown in its potential for use over a much wider range of chemistry and processing which has been grouped together under the general title of sonochemistry. Most of these uses depend on the generation of acoustic cavitation in liquid media but this text, while underlining the importance of the physics and mathematics of cavitation, mainly concentrates on applications of the technology. After an introduction to the topic and some historical background to the uses of power ultrasound the general principles of acoustic cavitation are explored including some background physics, bubble dynamics and factors which influence cavitation. The remainder of the book incorporates a series of applications of sonochemistry which illustrate the types of physical and chemical effects of ultrasonically induced cavitation which will interest chemists and engineers alike. Amongst the major topics included are chemical synthesis, environmental protection and remediation of water, sewage and soils, polymer synthesis and processing, electrochemistry including both analytical and synthetic aspects and plating. The final chapter reviews the range of ultrasonic equipment available in the laboratory and the progress made towards the scale-up of sonochemistry. The level is introductory to semi-advanced and no topic has been taken to a particularly specialist level since it is intended that this should be of general interest to readers with a scientific background.
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Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble

The book is suitable for graduate students working with ultrasound, and for potential chemists and chemical engineers wanting to understand the basics of how ultrasound acts in a liquid to cause chemical and physical effects.

Author: Franz Grieser

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128017265

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 175

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Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the phenomena are simply, but comprehensively presented. In addition, potential industrial and medical applications of acoustic cavitation and its chemical effects are described and reviewed. The book is suitable for graduate students working with ultrasound, and for potential chemists and chemical engineers wanting to understand the basics of how ultrasound acts in a liquid to cause chemical and physical effects. Experimental methods on acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry Helps users understand how to readily begin experiments in the field Provides an understanding of the physics behind the phenomenon Contains examples of (possible) industrial applications in chemical engineering and environmental technologies Presents the possibilities for adopting the action of acoustic cavitation with respect to industrial applications
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Organic Sonochemistry

This book provides informative, useful, and stimulating reading on the topic of organic sonochemistry – the core of ultrasound-based applications.

Author: Jean-Marc Lévêque

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319985541

Category: Science

Page: 123

View: 172

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This book provides informative, useful, and stimulating reading on the topic of organic sonochemistry – the core of ultrasound-based applications. Given the increasing interest in new and improved technologies, allied to their green and sustainable character (not always a valid premise), there is a great attraction for organic chemists to apply these protocols in synthesis and process chemistry. Unfortunately, as with other enabling technologies, many researchers new to the field have received a simple and dishonest message: just switch on! Therefore a significant portion of sonochemical syntheses lack reproducibility (surprisingly cavitation control and/or ultrasonic parameters are omitted) and the actual role of sonication remains uncertain. While this book does not provide a detailed description of fundamentals, the introductory remarks highlight the importance of cavitational effects and their experimental control. It presents a number of concepts of sonochemical reactivity and empirical rules with pertinent examples, often from classical and recent literature. It then focuses on scenarios of current interest where organic chemistry, and synthesis in particular, may benefit from sonication in terms of both chemical and mechanical activation. The “sustainable corner” of this field is largely exemplified through concepts like atom economy, renewable sources, wasteless syntheses, and benign solvents as reaction media. This book is useful for both researchers and graduate students, especially those familiar with the field of sonochemistry and applications of ultrasound in general. However, it is also of interest to a broader audience as it discusses the fundamentals, techniques, and experimental skills necessary for scientists wishing to initiate the use of ultrasound in their domain of expertise.
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Introduction to Ultrasound Sonochemistry and Sonoelectrochemistry

This book provides an introduction to the fundamental and applied aspects of sonochemistry, discussing a number of basic concepts in sonochemistry, such as how ultrasonic waves interact with gas bubbles in liquids to generate cavitation, ...

Author: Bruno G. Pollet

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030258627

Category: Science

Page: 39

View: 877

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This book provides an introduction to the fundamental and applied aspects of sonochemistry, discussing a number of basic concepts in sonochemistry, such as how ultrasonic waves interact with gas bubbles in liquids to generate cavitation, and how the high temperatures generated within cavitation bubbles could be estimated. It explains how redox radicals are produced and how to make use of both the physical and chemical forces generated during cavitation for various applications. Intended for academic researchers, industry professionals as well as undergraduate and graduate students, especially those starting on a new research topic or those new to the field, it provides a clear understanding of the concepts and methodologies involved in ultrasonic and sonochemistry.
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Sonochemistry

This book examines the application of sonochemistry for the synthesis of various nano-structured materials such as metals, metal carbides, metal oxides, chalcogenides and nanocomposites with unique properties.

Author: M. F. Mousavi

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 161761310X

Category: Science

Page: 102

View: 636

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Sonochemistry has experienced a large promotion in various fields concerned with the production of new nano-structured materials and improvement of their properties during recent years. However, it has encountered limitations in the case of the production of some nano-materials with specific morphology, size and properties. This book examines the application of sonochemistry for the synthesis of various nano-structured materials such as metals, metal carbides, metal oxides, chalcogenides and nanocomposites with unique properties.
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Sonochemistry

This book reviews research data in the study of sonochemistry including the application of sonochemistry for the synthesis of various nano-structured materials, ultrasound irradiation in pinacol coupling of carbonyl compounds, ultrasound ...

Author: Filip M. Nowak

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 1617286524

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 279

View: 597

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The study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of sonic waves and wave properties on chemical systems. The chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from a direct interaction with molecular species. Instead, sonochemistry arises from acoustic cavitation: the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid. This is demonstrated in phenomena such as ultrasound, sonication, sonoluminescence, and sonic cavitation. This book reviews research data in the study of sonochemistry including the application of sonochemistry for the synthesis of various nano-structured materials, ultrasound irradiation in pinacol coupling of carbonyl compounds, ultrasound and hydrophobic interactions in solutions, as well as the use of ultrasound to enhance anticancer agents in sonochemotherapy and the ultrasound-enhanced synthesis and chemical modification of fullerenes.
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Sonochemistry in Water Organic Solutions

This book presents and discusses this approach, which has opened novel perspectives for wider understanding of the effect of sonication on chemical reactions in solution, as well as on solvation phenomena in general.

Author: Ants Tuulmets

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 1617611751

Category: Science

Page: 54

View: 494

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Sonochemistry and solution chemistry have been explicitly brought together by analysing the effect of ultrasound on kinetics of ester hydrolysis and benzoin condensation, measured by the authors, and similar kinetic data for the solvolysis of tert-butyl chloride, compiled from literature. For the first time the power ultrasound, reaction kinetics and linear free-energy relationships were simultaneously exploited to study ionic reactions in water and aqueous-organic binary solvents and the importance of hydrophobic ground-state stabilisation of reagents in aqueous solutions was discussed. This book presents and discusses this approach, which has opened novel perspectives for wider understanding of the effect of sonication on chemical reactions in solution, as well as on solvation phenomena in general.
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