The Climate Revealed

Examines climate and meteorological conditions in different regions of the world, from the icy tundras to the arid deserts

Author: William Burroughs

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521770815

Category: Nature

Page: 192

View: 189

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Examines climate and meteorological conditions in different regions of the world, from the icy tundras to the arid deserts
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The Climate Revealed

From the catastrophic impact of drought and avalanches, to concerns about the effects of El Nino and La Nina, this book aims to raise questions and reveal wonders of the Earth's climate.

Author: William James Burroughs

Publisher:

ISBN: 1840001356

Category: Climatology

Page: 192

View: 781

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From the catastrophic impact of drought and avalanches, to concerns about the effects of El Nino and La Nina, this book aims to raise questions and reveal wonders of the Earth's climate. The text explores and explains this complex story and looks closely at the individual climatic zones, from the frigid climes of the polar ice caps to the scorching heat of the world's deserts.
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Climate Change

It contains review questions at the end of each chapter to enable readers to monitor their understanding of the materials covered. This book should appeal to an audience with a keen interest in all aspects of the climate change debate.

Author: William James Burroughs

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107049253

Category: Science

Page:

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Providing a concise, up-to-date presentation of current knowledge of climate change and its implications for society as a whole, this new edition has been thoroughly updated and extended to include the latest information. The text describes the components of the global climate, considers how the many elements of climate combine to define its behaviour, and reviews how climate change is measured. The author discusses how the causes of climate change can be related to the evidence of change, and modelled to predict future changes. This book is ideally suited for introductory courses in meteorology, oceanography, environmental science, earth science, geography, agriculture and social science. It contains review questions at the end of each chapter to enable readers to monitor their understanding of the materials covered. This book should appeal to an audience with a keen interest in all aspects of the climate change debate.
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Beyond Global Warming

They tell the stories of early trailblazers such as Svante Arrhenius, the legendary Swedish scientist who created the first climate model of Earth more than a century ago, and provide rare insights into Manabe's own groundbreaking work over ...

Author: Syukuro Manabe

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691058863

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 867

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Syukuro Manabe is perhaps the leading pioneer of modern climate modeling. Beyond Global Warming is his compelling firsthand account of how the scientific community came to understand the human causes of climate change, and how numerical models using the world's most powerful computers have been instrumental to these vital discoveries. Joined here by atmospheric scientist Anthony Broccoli, Manabe shows how climate models have been used as virtual laboratories for examining the complex planetary interactions of atmosphere, ocean, and land. Manabe and Broccoli use these studies as the basis for a broader discussion of human-induced global warming--and what the future may hold for a warming planet. They tell the stories of early trailblazers such as Svante Arrhenius, the legendary Swedish scientist who created the first climate model of Earth more than a century ago, and provide rare insights into Manabe's own groundbreaking work over the past five decades. Expertly walking readers through key breakthroughs, they explain why increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide has caused temperatures to rise in the troposphere yet fall in the stratosphere, why the warming of the planet's surface differs by hemisphere, why drought is becoming more frequent in arid regions despite the global increase in precipitation, and much more.
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Weather Cycles

Completely updated new edition exploring weather cycles for student and expert alike.

Author: William James Burroughs

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521528224

Category: Nature

Page: 317

View: 357

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Completely updated new edition exploring weather cycles for student and expert alike.
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The Whole Story of Climate

Accessible and engagingly written, this book is essential reading for anyone looking to understand one of our most important contemporary debates.

Author: E. Kirsten Peters

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 9781616146733

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 979

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In the publicity surrounding global warming, climate scientists are usually the experts consulted by the media. We rarely hear from geologists, who for almost two hundred years have been studying the history of Earth's dramatic and repeated climate revolutions, as revealed in the evidence of rocks and landscapes. This book, written by a geologist, describes the important contributions that geology has made to our understanding of climate change. What emerges is a much more complex and nuanced picture than is usually presented. While the average person often gets the impression that the Earth's climate would be essentially stable if it weren't for the deleterious effects of greenhouse gases, in fact the history of the earth over many millennia reveals a constantly changing climate. As the author explains, several long cold eras have been punctuated by shorter warm periods. The most recent of these warm spells, the one in which we are now living, started ten thousand years ago; based on previous patterns, we should be about due for the return of another frigid epoch. Some scientists even think that the warming of the planet caused by man-made greenhouse gasses tied to agriculture in the past few thousand years may have held off the next ice age. Though this may be possible, much remains uncertain. But what is clearly known is that major climate shifts can be appallingly rapid--occurring over as little as twenty or thirty years. One danger of dumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is that they may increase the chance that this "climate switch" will be thrown, with catastrophic effects on worldwide agriculture. Besides her discussion of climate, the author includes chapters on how early naturalists pieced together the complicated geological history of Earth, and she teaches the reader how to interpret the evidence of rock formations and landscape patterns all around us. Accessible and engagingly written, this book is essential reading for anyone looking to understand one of our most important contemporary debates.
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Global Climate Change and Public Health

This volume addresses issues of major importance to respiratory health and fills a major gap in the current literature. The ATS Climate Change and Respiratory Health Workshop was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, on May 15, 2010.

Author: Kent E. Pinkerton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461484172

Category: Medical

Page: 406

View: 885

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Pulmonary physicians and scientists currently have minimal capacity to respond to climate change and its impacts on health. The extent to which climate change influences the prevalence and incidence of respiratory morbidity remains largely undefined. However, evidence is increasing that climate change does drive respiratory disease onset and exacerbation as a result of increased ambient and indoor air pollution, desertification, heat stress, wildfires, and the geographic and temporal spread of pollens, molds and infectious agents. Preliminary research has revealed climate change to have potentially direct and indirect adverse impacts on respiratory health. Published studies have linked climate change to increases in respiratory disease, including the following: changing pollen releases impacting asthma and allergic rhinitis, heat waves causing critical care-related diseases, climate driven air pollution increases, exacerbating asthma and COPD, desertification increasing particulate matter (PM) exposures, and climate related changes in food and water security impacting infectious respiratory disease through malnutrition (pneumonia, upper respiratory infections). High level ozone and ozone exposure has been linked to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infection. Global Climate Change and Public Health is an important new volume based on the research, findings, and discussions of US and international experts on respiratory health and climate change. This volume addresses issues of major importance to respiratory health and fills a major gap in the current literature. The ATS Climate Change and Respiratory Health Workshop was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, on May 15, 2010. The purpose of the meeting was to address the threat to global respiratory health posed by climate change. The workshop was attended by domestic and international experts as well as representatives of international respiratory societies and key US federal agencies. Dr. Pinkerton and Dr. Rom, the editors of this title, were co-chairs of the Climate Change Workshop and Symposium.
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Chemistry of the Climate System

Hammer,C.U. (1981) Pastvolcanism and climate revealed by Greenland ice cores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 11,3‒10. Hammett,L. P. (1940) Physical-organic chemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York, 404 pp.

Author: Detlev Möller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110382303

Category: Science

Page: 806

View: 412

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Climate change is a major challenge facing the modern world. The chemistry of air and it's influence on the climate system forms the main focus of this monograph. The book presents a problem-based approach to presenting global atmospheric processes, evaluating the effects of changing air composition as well as possibilities for interference within these processes and indicates ways for solving the problem of climate change through chemistry. The new edition includes innovations and latest research results.
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The Climatology of Thailand and Future Climate Change Projections Using the Regional Climate Model Precis

This work facilitates the Regional Climate Model validation work which follows.

Author: Sujittra Inthacha

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:806194579

Category:

Page:

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The climate of Thailand has not been studied in as much depth as in other parts of continental Southeast Asia. The baseline climate of Thailand during 1961-1990 is first analysed using daily observational data from five surface stations, each representing a different region of Thailand, supplemented by the high resolution 0.50 monthly gridded observational dataset, CRUTS2.1. The latter leads to a deeper understanding of the spatial variation in seasonal cycles of key climate variables in Thailand. Also revealed is an increase in the number of tropical depressions crossing Thailand during La Nifia years. It was found that there is a statistically significant intensification (reduction) of precipitation during La Nifia (El Nifio) years at Surat Thani (Chiang Mai) in southern (northern) Thailand during ON (JJAS). This work facilitates the Regional Climate Model validation work which follows. The Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model, PRECIS, was run for the first time over Southeast Asia to specifically study the climate of Thailand. The first phase is model validation during the 1961-1990 baseline period. An ensemble of RCM runs is undertaken to study the sensitivity to the driving GCM. The added value provided by PRECIS in comparison to the coarser driving models is discussed. The possible causes of model bias are investigated. The model projections for the end of this century are undertaken based on high (SRES- A2) and low (SRES-B2) emission scenarios which estimate the range of possible climate change in Thailand. These RCM simulations suggest trends in temperature that are broadly in line with those reported by IPCC. PRECIS A2 and B2 simulations mostly produce small precipitation increases in JJAS and small precipitation increases (decreases) during DJF under the A2 (B2) scenario. Wet season precipitation increases appear to be related to higher rain intensity on fewer rain days.
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Multiscale Dynamics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability in the Climate System

Multiscale dynamics in the atmosphere-ocean system is ubiquitous from dust devils in the garden to tropical cyclones to mesoscale eddies in the ocean and deep ocean circulation.

Author: Aneesh C. Subramanian

Publisher:

ISBN: 1267248300

Category:

Page: 192

View: 366

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Multiscale dynamics in the atmosphere-ocean system is ubiquitous from dust devils in the garden to tropical cyclones to mesoscale eddies in the ocean and deep ocean circulation. The purpose of this thesis is to advance ocean-atmosphere general circulation modeling and methodologies for data assimilation in order to resolve more pieces of the climate modeling puzzle than before. Specifically, it focuses on modeling the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a climate model and modeling mesoscale eddies in a regional ocean model with data assimilation. While most climate models today fail to simulate even the large-scale features of the MJO, we find that CCSM4 reproduces many realistic aspects of MJO behavior. CCSM4 produces coherent, broadbanded and energetic patterns in eastward propagating intraseasonal zonal winds and OLR in the tropics with MJO-like characteristics. Broadscale patterns, as revealed in combined EOFs of U850, U200 and OLR, are remarkably consistent with observations and indicate that convective coupling occurs in the simulated MJOs. Relations between the MJO in the model and its concurrence with other climate states reveal that higher amplitude MJO activity occurs during weak warm ENSO events and during periods of weak meridional shear and negative zonal shear during the Indian Monsoons. MJO response to anthropogenic climate change is assessed using CCSM4 in a second study. In global warming scenarios, the model simulation indicates an increase in the number of days with higher amplitude MJOs and also a higher number of active MJO days in the Indian and West Pacific Ocean. These findings are consistent with MJO activity observations of the present and past. The second half of this thesis discusses the implementation of assimilation methodologies in physical oceanography. It presents the mathematical recipe of the assimilation method adapted in the present study and also illustrates the implementation of assimilation of observed data over the oceans in a regional ocean model (ROMS) in the Southeast Pacific region. Fifteen-day ROMS I4D-VAR data assimilation fits are performed successfully. The normalized absolute misfit between the observations and the corresponding model states is reduced close to the observational error range. Eddies are identified from the ocean state estimate along the track of the VOCALS-Rex cruise of 2008 and studied for their hydrography and velocity structure. Cyclonic eddies (sea level anomaly lows) are characterized by shoaling isopycnals in the upper 300 m, colder temperature cores and a shallower salinity minima. It is also observed that the water mass properties of the core of the eddy has similar properties to that in the subantarctic water close to the coast. A heat budget analysis for the period of the cruise reveals that the advection is the predominant process that balances the surface heat flux and temperature tendency. Vertical diffusion is the second highest term balancing the heat budget with the horizontal diffusion being an order of magnitude smaller, Lastly, the role of the linear analysis step of the ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) in disrupting the balanced dynamics in a simple atmospheric model is investigated and compared to a fully nonlinear particle-based filter (PF). Identical twin experiments show that EnKF and PF capture the variables on the slow manifold well as the dynamics is very stable. PFs, especially the SKRF, capture slaved modes better than the EnKF implying a full Bayesian analysis estimates the nonlinear model variables better. The PFs perform significantly better in the fully coupled nonlinear model where fast and slow variables modulate each other. This suggests that the analysis step in the PFs maintains the balance in both variables much better than the EnKF.
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