The End of Polio

A Global Effort to End a Disease
Author: Sebastião Salgado,Kofi Atta Annan
Publisher: Little Brown GBR
ISBN: 9780821228500
Category: Photography
Page: 158
View: 1676
An inspirational account of the global initiative to eliminate the scourge of polio offers one hundred stunning duotone photographs that capture the campaign in five polio endemic nations--Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Pakistan, Somalia, and Sudan.

The End of Polio?

Behind the Scenes of the Campaign to Vaccinate Every Child on the Planet
Author: Tim Brookes,Omar A. Khan
Publisher: Amer Public Health Assn
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 207
View: 1805

The End of Plagues

The Global Battle Against Infectious Disease
Author: John Rhodes
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1137381310
Category: Medical
Page: 256
View: 8442
At the turn of the twentieth century, smallpox claimed the lives of two million people per year. By 1979, the disease had been eradicated and victory was declared across the globe. Yet the story of smallpox remains the exception, as today a host of deadly contagions, from polio to AIDS, continue to threaten human health around the world. Spanning three centuries, The End of Plagues weaves together the discovery of vaccination, the birth and growth of immunology, and the fight to eradicate the world's most feared diseases. From Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, to the early nineteenth-century foundling voyages in which chains of orphans, vaccinated one by one, were sent to colonies around the globe, to the development of polio vaccines and the stockpiling of smallpox as a biological weapon in the Cold War, world-renown immunologist John Rhodes charts our fight against these plagues, and shows how vaccinations gave humanity the upper hand. Today, aid groups including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Health Organization have made the eradication of polio a priority, and Rhodes takes us behind the scenes to witness how soon we may be celebrating the eradication of polio.


The Odyssey of Eradication
Author: Thomas Abraham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 1787380874
Category: Medical
Page: N.A
View: 2248
In 1988, the World Health Organization launched a twelve-year campaign to wipe out polio. Thirty years and several billion dollars over budget later, the campaign grinds on, vaccinating millions of children and hoping that each new year might see an end to the disease. But success remains elusive, against a surprisingly resilient virus, an unexpectedly weak vaccine and the vagaries of global politics, meeting with indifference from governments and populations alike. How did an innocuous campaign to rid the world of a crippling disease become a hostage of geopolitics? Why do parents refuse to vaccinate their children against polio? And why have poorly paid door-to-door healthworkers been assassinated? Thomas Abraham reports on the ground in search of answers.

The Politics of Polio in Northern Nigeria

Author: Elisha P. Renne
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253004616
Category: Medical
Page: 192
View: 5034
In 2008, Northern Nigeria had the greatest number of confirmed cases of polio in the world and was the source of outbreaks in several West African countries. Elisha P. Renne explores the politics and social dynamics of the Northern Nigerian response to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which has been met with extreme skepticism, subversion, and the refusal of some parents to immunize their children. Renne explains this resistance by situating the eradication effort within the social, political, cultural, and historical context of the experience of polio in Northern Nigeria. Questions of vaccine safety, the ability of the government to provide basic health care, and the role of the international community are factored into this sensitive and complex treatment of the ethics of global polio eradication efforts.

The End of Terrorism?

Author: Leonard Weinberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113665190X
Category: Political Science
Page: 156
View: 3988
This book considers not the beginning or origins of terrorism but how groups that use terrorism end. Terrorism as a tactic is unlikely to disappear, however virtually all the groups that employed terrorist violence during the 1960s and 1970s have passed from the scene in one way or another. Likewise most of the individuals who embarked on ‘careers’ in terrorism over these same years now engage in other pursuits. The author argues that al-Qaeda and the various violent Islamist groups it has inspired are, like their predecessors, bound to bring their operations to an end. Rather than discussing the defection or de-radicalization of individuals the book aims to analyze how terrorist groups are defeated, or defeat themselves. It examines the historical record, drawing on a large collection of empirical data to analyze in detail the various ends of these violent organizations. This book provides a unique empirically informed perspective on the end of terrorism that is a valuable addition to the currently available literature and will be of interest to scholars of terrorism, security studies and international politics.

Evaluation of Poliomyelitis Vaccines

Report of the Committee for the Study of Poliomyelitis Vaccines
Author: Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee for the Study of Poliomyelitis Vaccines
Publisher: National Academies
Category: Poliomyelitis vaccine
Page: 75
View: 7012

Progress in Polio Eradication

Vaccine Strategies for the End Game : Institut Pasteur, Paris June 28-30 2000
Author: Fred Brown
Publisher: S Karger Ag
ISBN: 9783805572859
Category: Medical
Page: 244
View: 4506
Volume 105 of Developments in Biologicals reports scientific presentations on the latest progress in polio eradication and vaccination given at an international symposium held in June 2000. The following topics are covered: - the highly impressive progress towards global eradication and the role of the WHO Polio Eradication Program - the efficiency and reliability of virological surveillance and the scientific basis for certification of eradication, including perspectives from countries in the developing world as well as from the developed - updates on the molecular biology and genetics of poliovirus and poliovaccines, including the molecular basis for attenuation and reversion to virulence and the interesting area of receptor specificity for polio and other enteroviruses - the advantages and disadvantages of current poliovaccines and immunization strategies, reviewed by participants from industry and public health organizations - the role of inactivated poliovaccines in the end game and the vexed question of when and how vaccination against polio can be safely suspended as well as the risks of re-introduction of polio post-eradication and post-vaccination - gaps in scientific knowledge in the fields of virology, immunology and epidemiology relevant to the end game of polio eradication and priorities for future scientific research This volume will remain a key reference on polio eradication and vaccination for many years to come, not only for academic researchers but also for members of public health organizations, vaccine manufacturers and managers of immunization programs.

Elegy for a Disease

A Personal and Cultural History of Polio
Author: Anne Finger
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1466852968
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 304
View: 7165
During the first half of the twentieth century, epidemics of polio caused fear and panic, killing some who contracted the disease, leaving others with varying degrees of paralysis. The defeat of polio became a symbol of modern technology's ability to reduce human suffering. But while the story of polio may have seemed to end on April 12, 1956, when the Salk vaccine was declared a success, millions of people worldwide are polio survivors. In this dazzling memoir, Anne Finger interweaves her personal experience with polio with a social and cultural history of the disease. Anne contracted polio as a very young child, just a few months before the Salk vaccine became widely available. After six months of hospitalization, she returned to her family's home in upstate New York, using braces and crutches. In her memoir, she writes about the physical expansiveness of her childhood, about medical attempts to "fix" her body, about family violence, job discrimination, and a life rich with political activism, writing, and motherhood. She also writes an autobiography of the disease, describing how it came to widespread public attention during a 1916 epidemic in New York in which immigrants, especially Italian immigrants, were scapegoated as being the vectors of the disease. She relates the key roles that Franklin Roosevelt played in constructing polio as a disease that could be overcome with hard work, as well as his ties to the nascent March of Dimes, the prototype of the modern charity. Along the way, we meet the formidable Sister Kenny, the Australian nurse who claimed to have found a revolutionary treatment for polio and who was one of the most admired women in America at mid-century; a group of polio survivors who formed the League of the Physically Handicapped to agitate for an end to disability discrimination in Depression-era relief projects; and the founders of the early disability-rights movement, many of them polio survivors who, having been raised to overcome obstacles and triumph over their disabilities, confronted a world filled with barriers and impediments that no amount of hard work could overcome. Anne Finger writes with the candor and the skill of a novelist, and shows not only how polio shaped her life, but how it shaped American cultural experience as well.

Polio Across the Iron Curtain

Hungary's Cold War with an Epidemic
Author: Dóra Vargha
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108420842
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 6223
Through the lens of polio, Dóra Vargha looks anew at international health, communism and Cold War politics. This title is also available as Open Access.

The End of Days

Author: Helen Sendyk
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815606161
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 232
View: 3106
Sendyk is the last member of a Jewish family of 12 from Chrzanow, Poland, only three of whom survived the Holocaust. This is her moving story of how each of the others died and of what happened to her and her one sister who survived a German labour camp.

The Biochemistry of Poliomyelitis Viruses

A Synopsis of Poliomyelitis Infection and Research
Author: Ernest Kovács
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148315033X
Category: Science
Page: 284
View: 640
The Biochemistry of Poliomyelitis Viruses deals with the interrelationships and differences of positions in the field of poliomyelitis research. This volume presents a general introduction to viruses as to their descriptions and biological, biochemical, and epidemiological aspects. Clinical poliomyelitis, test measurements in the cerebrospinal fluid, and the actions of the poliomyelitis virus are explained. The isolation of the poliomyelitis virus and some aspects of its immunology and serology through refinements of serologic tools and special techniques, plus the state of poliovirus purification, are noted. This book also gives assumptions about the virus' synthetic activities in vivo based on experiments conducted in other viral diseases other than the polio virus. This text also notes that important discoveries such as those made by Gierer and Schramm or Fraenkel-Conrat provide updated poliomyelitis research. Other research studies are taken into consideration and emphasis is given to the biochemical concept of the polio infection and the related features induced during infection such as the presence of tumors. The most promising trend in research is in the study of enzymes of infected cells leading to an understanding of the biochemistry of viral diseases. The use of inference microscopy and X-ray analysis of cell mass is recommended. This book will prove invaluable for microbiologists, disease investigators, clinical workers, and research scientists.

The Health of Nations

The Campaign to End Polio and Eradicate Epidemic Diseases
Author: Karen Bartlett
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1786070693
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 1462
‘Hope lies in dreams, in imagination, and in the courage of those who dare to make dreams into reality.’ – Jonas Salk, inventor of one of the first successful polio vaccines No one will die of smallpox again… One of the worst killers ever is now consigned to history – perhaps the greatest humanitarian achievement of our age. Now polio, malaria and measles are on the hit list. Karen Bartlett tells the dramatic story of the history of eradication and takes us to the heart of modern campaigns. From high-tech labs in America to the poorest corners of Africa and the Middle East, we see the tremendous challenges those on the front lines face every day, and how they take us closer to a brave new world.

The Polio Years in Texas

Battling a Terrifying Unknown
Author: Heather Green Wooten
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1603443576
Category: History
Page: 265
View: 7651
In "The Polio Years in Texas," Heather Green Wooten draws on extensive archival research as well as interviews conducted over a five-year period with Texas polio survivors and their families. This is a detailed and intensely human account of not only the epidemics that swept Texas during the polio years, but also of the continuing aftermath of the disease for those who are still living with its effects.

Polio and Its Aftermath

The Paralysis of Culture
Author: Marc Shell
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674043545
Category: Medical
Page: 324
View: 6646

Polio Wars

Sister Kenny and the Golden Age of American Medicine
Author: Naomi Rogers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199334137
Category: Medical
Page: 488
View: 9492
During World War II, polio epidemics in the United States were viewed as the country's "other war at home": they could be neither predicted nor contained, and paralyzed patients faced disability in a world unfriendly to the disabled. These realities were exacerbated by the medical community's enforced orthodoxy in treating the disease, treatments that generally consisted of ineffective therapies. Polio Wars is the story of Sister Elizabeth Kenny -- "Sister" being a reference to her status as a senior nurse, not a religious designation -- who arrived in the US from Australia in 1940 espousing an unorthodox approach to the treatment of polio. Kenny approached the disease as a non-neurological affliction, championing such novel therapies as hot packs and muscle exercises in place of splinting, surgery, and immobilization. Her care embodied a different style of clinical practice, one of optimistic, patient-centered treatments that gave hope to desperate patients and families. The Kenny method, initially dismissed by the US medical establishment, gained overwhelming support over the ensuing decade, including the endorsement of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (today's March of Dimes), America's largest disease philanthropy. By 1952, a Gallup Poll identified Sister Kenny as most admired woman in America, and she went on to serve as an expert witness at Congressional hearings on scientific research, a foundation director, and the subject of a Hollywood film. Kenny breached professional and social mores, crafting a public persona that blended Florence Nightingale and Marie Curie. By the 1980s, following the discovery of the Salk and Sabin vaccines and the March of Dimes' withdrawal from polio research, most Americans had forgotten polio, its therapies, and Sister Kenny. In examining this historical arc and the public's process of forgetting, Naomi Rogers presents Kenny as someone worth remembering. Polio Wars recalls both the passion and the practices of clinical care and explores them in their own terms.

In Search of Better Angels

Stories of Disability in the Human Family
Author: J. David Smith
Publisher: Corwin Press
ISBN: 1483362647
Category: Education
Page: 160
View: 375
This resource is a testament to the value of people with disabilities and the enrichment that we can find with them.

The Cutter Incident

How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis
Author: Paul A. Offit
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300126051
Category: History
Page: 238
View: 8211
Vaccines have saved more lives than any other single medical advance. Yet today only four companies make vaccines, and there is a growing crisis in vaccine availability. Why has this happened? This remarkable book recounts for the first time a devastating episode in 1955 at Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California, thathas led many pharmaceutical companies to abandon vaccine manufacture. Drawing on interviews with public health officials, pharmaceutical company executives, attorneys, Cutter employees, and victims of the vaccine, as well as on previously unavailable archives, Dr. Paul Offit offers a full account of the Cutter disaster. He describes the nation's relief when the polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk in 1955, the production of the vaccine at industrial facilities such as the one operated by Cutter, and the tragedy that occurred when 200,000 people were inadvertently injected with live virulent polio virus: 70,000 became ill, 200 were permanently paralyzed, and 10 died. Dr. Offit also explores how, as a consequence of the tragedy, one jury's verdict set in motion events that eventually suppressed the production of vaccines already licensed and deterred the development of new vaccines that hold the promise of preventing other fatal diseases.

Immunization for children

Author: N.A
Publisher: Paras Medical Publisher
ISBN: 9788181910950
Category: Immunization of children
Page: 287
View: 8839

The Birth Of The Texas Medical Center

A Personal Account
Author: Frederick C. Elliott
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585443338
Category: History
Page: 241
View: 4370
A world-renowned medical complex, the Texas Medical Center handles more than five million patient visits each year. Its forty member institutions include two medical schools, four schools of nursing, and thirteen hospitals. Its one hundred permanent buildings sprawl across more than 740 acres near downtown Houston. Houston has watched the institution grow and thrive in the many years since its birth and has reaped enormous economic rewards from hosting it. The determination and innovation of a few key individuals made it all possible. This is the story of one of them, dentist Frederick C. Elliot. A modest, hard-working individual, Dr. Elliot labored behind the scenes to help breathe life into the dream of a multi-specialty, multi-institutional medical complex. The Birth of the Texas Medical Center presents his eyewitness account of the creation of this medical wonder. Before World War II, Houston was home to many outstanding individual doctors, but no comprehensive, synergistic system existed to focus their collective efforts. Through the time and vision Elliot and others put into building the Texas Medical Center, these individual doctors found a forum in which to learn from one another and to exchange ideas and techniques that would change the way the art of medicine was taught and practiced. In his autobiography, skillfully honed and edited by historian William H. Kellar, Elliot relates his perspective on the founding of the Texas Medical Center. He details the political struggles of finding funding and property for the building of the center, as well as conflicts that arose among the founders regarding innovative techniques and treatments, and procedures for inter-institutional cooperation. Elliot provides realistic portraits of the medical men, educators, and businessmen who worked together—and sometimes quarreled—to bring the Medical Center into being. His story reveals the human side of a huge and dynamic institution. This book is sure to appeal to anyone interested in the history of Houston and its famous Texas Medical Center, which has become a model for the world.