The Eukaryote Genome in Development and Evolution

From the previous sections of this book it should be apparent that many of the components of the eukaryote genome have ... matter little in metabolism or in development, we now need to examine whether they play a role in evolution, ...

Author: John Bernard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401159913

Category: Science

Page: 416

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'The mind unlearns with difficulty what has long been impressed upon it. ' Seneca Reductionism, is, without question, the most successful analytical approach available to the experimental scientist. With the advent of techniques for cloning and sequencing DNA, and the development of a variety of molecular probes for localizing macromolecules in cells and tissues, the biologist now has available the most powerful reductionist tools ever invented. The application of these new technologies has led to a veritable explosion of facts regarding the types and organization of nucleotide sequences present in the genomes of eukaryotes. These data offer a level of precision and predictability which is unparalleled in biology. Recombinant DNA techniques were initially developed to gather information about the structure and organization of the DNA sequences within a genome. The power and potential of these techniques, however, extend far beyond simple data collection of this kind. In an attempt to use the new technology as a basis for analyzing development and evolution, attention was first focused on the topic of gene regulation, an approach that had proven so successful in prokaryotes. It is now clear that this has not been an adequate approach. Lewin (1984) has quoted Brenner as stating 'at the beginning it was said that the answer to the understanding of development was going to come from a knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of gene control. I doubt whether anyone believes this any more.
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Developmental Biology in Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes

This book highlights one of Darwin's most important findings: Evolution is a creative, but not a conscious process. It also illustrates that this concept does not only apply to multicellular higher organisms, but affects every form of life.

Author: Tomás González Villa

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030775957

Category: Science

Page: 565

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‘Developmental biology’ is widely understood as processes, which mainly concern embryonic animal development and differentiation of cells and tissue. It is also often defined as the timeline for the evolutionary developmental biology of eukaryotic multicellular higher organisms, i.e., plants and animals. The development of prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes in contrary has been neglected for a long time, which was the motivation for publishing this book. This book highlights one of Darwin's most important findings: Evolution is a creative, but not a conscious process. It also illustrates that this concept does not only apply to multicellular higher organisms, but affects every form of life. The reader shall find complex biochemical and genetic pathways of bacteria, yeasts or protozoa, comparable to those exhibited by plants or animals. The molecular mechanisms of dramatic genome rearrangements, recombination and horizontal gene transfer that are responsible for evolutionary adaptations are discussed. Additionally, the book covers bacteria of the genera Myxobacteriales and Caulobacterales, which are able to develop tissue-like cellular organization. The morphogenesis of entomopathogenic fungi and the endosymbiont theory are also addressed. The book is a useful introduction to the field for junior scientists, interested in bacteriology, protistology and fungal development. It is also an interesting read for advanced scientists, giving them a broader view of the field beyond their area of specialization.
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Genetics Development and Evolution

One outstanding question in biology is the problem of devel opment: how the genetic instructions encoded in the DNA become expressed in the morphological, physiological, and behavioral features of multicellular organisms, through an ordered ...

Author: J. Perry Gustafson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1468451391

Category: Medical

Page: 361

View: 140

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One outstanding question in biology is the problem of devel opment: how the genetic instructions encoded in the DNA become expressed in the morphological, physiological, and behavioral features of multicellular organisms, through an ordered sequence of events that extend from the first cell division of the zygote to the adult stage and eventual death. The problem is how a one dimensional array of instructions is transformed into a four dimensional entity, the organism that exists in space and time. Understanding this transformation is, nevertheless, necessary for mastering the process of evolution. One hundred and twenty-five years after The Origin of Species, we have gained some understanding of evolution at the genetic level. Genetic information is stored in the linear sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. Gene mutations, chromosomal reorganiza tions, and a host of related processes introduce variation in the sequence and the amount of DNA. The fate of these variations is determined by interactions within the genome and with the outside environment that are largely understood. We have recently gained a glimpse of how the genome of eukaryotes is organized and will learn much more about it in the future, now that we have the research tools for it.
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The Evolution of the Genome

C value and cell volume: their significance in the evolution and development of amphibians. J Cell Sci 63: 135–146. Hughes AL. 1999. Adaptive Evolution of Genes and Genomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hughes AL, Hughes MK. 1995.

Author: T. Ryan Gregory

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080470521

Category: Science

Page: 768

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The Evolution of the Genome provides a much needed overview of genomic study through clear, detailed, expert-authored discussions of the key areas in genome biology. This includes the evolution of genome size, genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polypoidy, comparative genomics, and the implications of these genome-level phenomena for evolutionary theory. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge of these fields in an accessible way, the various chapters also provide historical and conceptual background information, highlight the ways in which the critical questions are actually being studied, indicate some important areas for future research, and build bridges across traditional professional and taxonomic boundaries. The Evolution of the Genome will serve as a critical resource for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and established scientists alike who are interested in the issue of genome evolution in the broadest sense. Provides detailed, clearly written chapters authored by leading researchers in their respective fields Presents a much-needed overview of the historical and theoretical context of the various areas of genomic study Creates important links between topics in order to promote integration across subdisciplines, including descriptions of how each subject is actually studied Provides information specifically designed to be accessible to established researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students alike
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Comparative Genomics

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th RECOMB International Satellite Workshop on Comparative Genomics, RECOMB-CG 2009, Budapest, Hungary, in September 2009.

Author: Francesca D. Ciccarelli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642047442

Category: Science

Page: 241

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As genome-sequencing costs continue their downward spiral, sequencing of closely related organisms has become increasingly a?ordable. The growing amount of genomic data available demands for the constant development of computational tools to be applied in comparative genomics. The RECOMB Workshop on C- parative Genomics (RECOMB-CG) is devoted to bringing together scientists working on all aspects of comparative genomics, from computer scientists, ma- ematicians and statisticians working on novel computational approaches for genome analysis and comparison, to biologists applying these computational tools to study the structure and the evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. This volume contains the 19 papers presented at the 7th Annual RECOMB-CG workshop held during September 27–29, 2009 at the Renyi Institute, in Budapest, Hungary. The papers published in these proceedings were selected for oral p- sentation from 31 submissions from scientists around the world. Each paper was reviewed by at least three members of the Program Committee in a stringent and thoughtful peer-review process.
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Genesis

This is the first book on the general history of evolutionary biology to include the history of research and theories about symbiosis in evolution, and first to include research on microbial evolution which were excluded from the classical ...

Author: Jan Sapp

Publisher: Oxford : Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195156195

Category: Science

Page: 385

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What is evolution? What is a gene? How did these concepts originate and how did they develop? This book is a short history ranging from Lamarck and Darwin to DNA and the Human Genome Project, exploring the conceptual oppositions, techniques, institutional conditions and controversies that have shaped the development of biology.
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Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution

This volume is essential reading for anyone working in plant genetics, epigenetics, or evolutionary biology. The transposable genetic elements, or transposons, as they are now known, have had a tumultuous history.

Author: Nina V. Fedoroff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118500101

Category: Science

Page: 232

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The transposable genetic elements, or transposons, as they are now known, have had a tumultuous history. Discovered in the mid-20th century by Barbara McClintock, they were initially received with puzzlement. When their genomic abundance began to be apparent, they were categorized as "junk DNA" and acquired the label of parasites. Expanding understanding of gene and genome organization has revealed the profound extent of their impact on both. Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution captures and distills the voluminous research literature on plant transposable elements and seeks to assemble the big picture of how transposons shape gene structure and regulation, as well as how they sculpt genomes in evolution. Individual chapters provide concise overviews of the many flavors of plant transposons and of their roles in gene creation, gene regulation, development, genome evolution, and organismal speciation, as well as of their epigenetic regulation. This volume is essential reading for anyone working in plant genetics, epigenetics, or evolutionary biology.
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Evolution

Nature 409 : 861-921 . John , B. , and G. L. G. Miklos . 1988. The Eukaryote Genome in Development and Evolution . London : Allen and Unwin . Joyce , G. F. 1989. RNA evolution and the origin of life . Nature 338 : 217-224 .

Author: Collin Allen

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 067403175X

Category: Science

Page: 1020

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An introduction to evolutionary biology spans evolutionary science from its inception to its latest findings, covering discoveries, philosophy, and history.
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Molecular Biology

Over 170 color figures clearly illustrate key concepts. The goal of this work is to clarify concepts in a streamlined manner, not to be an encyclopedic collection of facts.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 1720058539

Category:

Page: 266

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This introductory college-level molecular biology textbook builds upon concepts from first-year high school biology and chemistry courses to elucidate essential concepts in molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics. It is appropriate for college courses and high school courses taught at the college level. Over 170 color figures clearly illustrate key concepts. The goal of this work is to clarify concepts in a streamlined manner, not to be an encyclopedic collection of facts. Connections are explicitly made to prior knowledge and key high school chemistry concepts are reviewed. The biotechnology driving basic science research and translational medicine is explained so that this textbook can serve as a companion to a student beginning molecular biology research. Highlighted techniques include PCR, Sanger DNA sequencing, next-generation DNA sequencing, genetic engineering of plasmids, iGEM gene assembly, principles of gene expression, gene transfer into bacteria and mammalian cells, strategies in drug design, human gene therapy, CRISPR and other genome editing techniques. Human disease is explored from the standpoint of understanding its basic science in order to develop effective treatments.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY: Organic Molecules; The Thermodynamics of Life; Organic Molecules and Thermodynamics in the Cell; Biotechnology and Alternative Energy.CHAPTER 2: PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION; Protein Biochemistry; Enzyme; Use and Manipulation of Proteins in Biotechnology.CHAPTER 3: DNA REPLICATION, REPAIR AND GENETIC ENGINEERING; Chromosomes; DNA Biochemistry; DNA Replication; DNA Repair Enzymes; Genetic Engineering.CHAPTER 4: THE REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION: The Regulation of Transcription; The Organization of a Gene; Posttranscriptional Regulation of mRNA Levels in Eukaryotes; The Programming of Transcriptional Patterns During Development; Measuring Levels of Gene Expression.CHAPTER 5: GENOME EVOLUTION: Genome Evolution; Cancer; Mutation and Selection in the Immune System.CHAPTER 6: EMERGING MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Precision Medicine: Analyzing Individual Genomes and Transcriptomes; Emerging Methods for Disease Treatment.SELECT TOPICS INCLUDE: Mechanisms of dominant (gain of function, dominant negative, haploinsufficiency) and recessive phenotypes, protein misfolding and aggregation disorders, prion disease, FRET, PCR, cohesin in mitosis, Sanger DNA sequencing, next generation DNA sequencing, the Human Genome Project, DNA fingerprinting, mechanisms of mutation and DNA repair, NHEJ, homologous recombination, restriction enzymes, cloning strategies, strategies for introducing genes into prokaryotes and eukaryotes, gene parts, mRNA stability, formation and function of euchromatin and heterochromatin, histone modifications, chromatin packaging, topologically associated domains, organismal cloning, stem cells, DNA methylation patterns, genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, RNAi, siRNAs, microRNAs, lncRNAs, microarrays, patterns of conserved synteny in genomes, natural selection of phenotypes and genome evolution, gene duplication, hallmarks of cancer, Knudson's 2-Hit Hypothesis, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cancer mutations in the context of signaling pathways, cell cycle checkpoints, telomeres and telomerase, the role of p53, mitotic errors in chromosome segregation in cancer, causes of genomic instability in cancer, gene rearrangement and selection in antibody-producing cells, precision medicine, genome or exome sequencing, recent advances in gene therapy, genome editing, zinc finger endonucleases, TALENs, CRISPR/Cas9, strategies for drug design, role of molecular dynamics modeling in drug design.This textbook was created to replace direct lecturing, to support teaching through inquiry and experimentation. Supporting materials are available on the author's website: HackettMolecularBiology.blogspot.com
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