The Exact Sciences in Antiquity

Based on a series of lectures delivered at Cornell University in the fall of 1949, and since revised, this is the standard non-technical coverage of Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, and their transmission to the ...

Author: Otto Neugebauer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486223329

Category: Science

Page: 240

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Based on a series of lectures delivered at Cornell University in the fall of 1949, and since revised, this is the standard non-technical coverage of Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, and their transmission to the Hellenistic world. Entirely modern in its data and conclusions, it reveals the surprising sophistication of certain areas of early science, particularly Babylonian mathematics. After a discussion of the number systems used in the ancient Near East (contrasting the Egyptian method of additive computations with unit fractions and Babylonian place values), Dr. Neugebauer covers Babylonian tables for numerical computation, approximations of the square root of 2 (with implications that the Pythagorean Theorem was known more than a thousand years before Pythagoras), Pythagorean numbers, quadratic equations with two unknowns, special cases of logarithms and various other algebraic and geometric cases. Babylonian strength in algebraic and numerical work reveals a level of mathematical development in many aspects comparable to the mathematics of the early Renaissance in Europe. This is in contrast to the relatively primitive Egyptian mathematics. In the realm of astronomy, too, Dr. Neugebauer describes an unexpected sophistication, which is interpreted less as the result of millennia of observations (as used to be the interpretation) than as a competent mathematical apparatus. The transmission of this early science and its further development in Hellenistic times is also described. An Appendix discusses certain aspects of Greek astronomy and the indebtedness of the Copernican system to Ptolemaic and Islamic methods. Dr. Neugebauer has long enjoyed an international reputation as one of the foremost workers in the area of premodern science. Many of his discoveries have revolutionized earlier understandings. In this volume he presents a non-technical survey, with much material unique on this level, which can be read with great profit by all interested in the history of science or history of culture. 14 plates. 52 figures.
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Exact Sciences in Greek Antiquity

This book consists of 24 papers on ancient Greek science and technology. It covers such areas as mathematics, physics, engineering, astronomical methods and instruments, and environmental issues.

Author: Stephanos A. Paipetis

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527536135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

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This book consists of 24 papers on ancient Greek science and technology. It covers such areas as mathematics, physics, engineering, astronomical methods and instruments, and environmental issues. A great variety of topics are discussed, including medical care in ancient Olympiads, mathematical concepts in Plato, the concept of the rate of change in various mathematical areas and the concept of symmetry in ancient Greece. Aristotle’s Physics on free falling bodies, world-structure formation and matter according to the Presocratics, acoustic phenomena in archaeological sites, Trojan Horse reconstruction, offensive and defensive weapons in Homer’s epics, and telecommunications in ancient Greece are also some of the issues addressed here. This book will be an important resource to physicists, mathematicians, engineers, archaeologists, historians, and philologists.
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SCIAMVS

Publishes source materials for historical research on the exact sciences in Antiquity and the Middle Ages in original languages, with translations, notes, and commentaries.

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ISBN: STANFORD:36105133265251

Category: Mathematics, Ancient

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Publishes source materials for historical research on the exact sciences in Antiquity and the Middle Ages in original languages, with translations, notes, and commentaries.
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Neugebauer Microform Index of the Exact Sciences

The Neugebauer Index of the Exact Sciences was compiled over some 50 years, beginning about 1930, by Otto Neugebauer, an Austrian-American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy ...

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ISBN: OCLC:427799077

Category: Astronomy

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The Neugebauer Index of the Exact Sciences was compiled over some 50 years, beginning about 1930, by Otto Neugebauer, an Austrian-American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact (i.e., mathematical) sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages. It consists of 26,002 file-cards; on these cards are written by hand the very detailed and meticulous notes which Neugebauer used for research and publication throughout his career. These cards fall into two types. The first are subject-cards which divide the history of the exact sciences by time period, culture (Classical Greek and Roman, Babylonian, Egyptian, Islamic, Judaic, Byzantine, European) and topic (the various branches of the mathematical sciences such as arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, astronomy; scientific instruments, calendars, lexica, and so on). These subject-cards are keyed to the second type of cards, the bibliographical cards which record the literature and documents that Neugebauer consulted. The index is an archival document intended only to serve as a guide for others in their research; it will not be updated and it is not an authoritative reference work.
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Ancient Medieval Traditions in the Exact Sciences

This volume of essays is dedicated to Wilbur Knorr, an outstanding historian of science whose career was cut short much too early.

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Stanford Univ Center for the Study

ISBN: 1575862735

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

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This volume of essays is dedicated to Wilbur Knorr, an outstanding historian of science whose career was cut short much too early. Inspired by Knorr's work, this volume concentrates on the history of ancient mathematics, the associated mathematical sciences, and their medieval and modern tradition. This volume emulates the quality and diverse interests of Knorr's innovative, exact, and far-reaching research. Topics inspired by Knorr include a study of geometric analysis and synthesis in ancient Greece and medieval Islam; examination of Eudoxus as originator for the ideas of proportionality underlying Book V of "Euclid's Elements"; and the extent that Renaissance theorists of linear perspective had access to ancient sources. This book considers the status of Eudoxus's theory of homocentric spheres in Greek astronomy and the examination of the status of in Greek mathematics. A detailed discussion of the geometrical chemistry of Plato's Timaeus and its interpretation in antiquity stems from Knorr's work, and a study of Plato's concept of numbers and its relation to the Theory of Forms. Knorr's varied interests motivate investigation into the representation of numbers in the Latin middle ages, or why we read Arabic numbers backwards, and the history of science in a chronology of the three dynasties in ancient China.
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The Cambridge History of Science Volume 1 Ancient Science

This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to the history of science, medicine and mathematics of the Old World in antiquity.

Author: Alexander Jones

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108682626

Category: Technology & Engineering

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This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to the history of science, medicine and mathematics of the Old World in antiquity. Organized by topic and culture, its essays by distinguished scholars offer the most comprehensive and up-to-date history of ancient science currently available. Together, they reveal the diversity of goals, contexts, and accomplishments in the study of nature in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, and India. Intended to provide a balanced and inclusive treatment of the ancient world, contributors consider scientific, medical and mathematical learning in the cultures associated with the ancient world.
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Greek Science In Antiquity

approach to the dependence of Greek mathematics on Babylonian linear methods is to be found in the sixth chapter of Neugebauer's The Exact Sciences in ...

Author: Marshall Clagett

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 9781786258571

Category: History

Page: 215

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In this volume I have attempted to give especial and marked attention to the fate of Greek science in late antiquity. Elementary texts in the past have long ignored this aspect of Greek science. The importance of the course of Greek science in late antiquity is evident, for it was during this period that much of the Greek scientific corpus was put into the form in which it passed to the medieval Latin West. We are justified, then, in considering this volume as an introduction to medieval and early modern science—that science being considered as a transformation of Greek science.
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