The Examination Culture in Imperial China

This book studies the Chinese imperial examination from a variety of perspectives.

Author: Haifeng Liu

Publisher:

ISBN: 1844644820

Category: China

Page: 322

View: 313

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This book studies the Chinese imperial examination from a variety of perspectives. The imperial examination was the literary civil service exam in ancient China, yet it embodied properties of educational exams. The first section of this book opens with the centurial anniversary of the abolition of the examination system, where the injustice done to the imperial examination system is discussed. The second section discusses the inception of the imperial examination, concentrating on the research of the start of the imperial examination in Sui and Tang dynasty. The achievements and defects of the imperial examination system constitute the third part of the book. The fourth section looks into the influence of the imperial examination culture. It discusses the influence of the imperial examination system on Chinese culture, the remnants of the system in modern China, with a focus on the system's spread to western and eastern countries. In addition, theories on the formation of the east Asian imperial examination cultural circle, and the system's spread to western countries, are discussed. This book is an authoritative, thorough, and comprehensive study of the Chinese imperial examination system. It will be required reading for those who wish to understand Chinese culture, especially ancient China's education and examination system. [Subject: Chinese Studies, Sociology, Education]
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A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China

In this multidimensional analysis, Benjamin A. Elman uses over a thousand newly available examination records from the Yuan, Ming, and Ch'ing dynasties, 1315-1904, to explore the social, political, and cultural dimensions of the civil ...

Author: Benjamin A. Elman

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 052092147X

Category: History

Page: 889

View: 668

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In this multidimensional analysis, Benjamin A. Elman uses over a thousand newly available examination records from the Yuan, Ming, and Ch'ing dynasties, 1315-1904, to explore the social, political, and cultural dimensions of the civil examination system, one of the most important institutions in Chinese history. For over five hundred years, the most important positions within the dynastic government were usually filled through these difficult examinations, and every other year some one to two million people from all levels of society attempted them. Covering the late imperial system from its inception to its demise, Elman revises our previous understanding of how the system actually worked, including its political and cultural machinery, the unforeseen consequences when it was unceremoniously scrapped by modernist reformers, and its long-term historical legacy. He argues that the Ming-Ch'ing civil examinations from 1370 to 1904 represented a substantial break with T'ang-Sung dynasty literary examinations from 650 to 1250. Late imperial examinations also made "Tao Learning," Neo-Confucian learning, the dynastic orthodoxy in official life and in literati culture. The intersections between elite social life, popular culture, and religion that are also considered reveal the full scope of the examination process throughout the late empire.
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China s Examination Hell

Written by one of the foremost historians of Chinese institutions, this book focuses on China's civil service examination system in its final and most elaborate phase during the Ch'ing dynasty.

Author: Ichisada Miyazaki

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300026390

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 346

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Written by one of the foremost historians of Chinese institutions, this book focuses on China's civil service examination system in its final and most elaborate phase during the Ch'ing dynasty. All aspects of this labyrinthine system are explored: the types of questions, the style and form in which they were to be answered, the problem of cheating, and the psychological and financial burdens of the candidates, the rewards of the successful and the plight of those who failed. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including Chinese novels, short stories, and plays, this thought provoking and entertaining book brings to vivid life the testing structure that supplied China's government bureaucracy for almost fourteen hundred years. "Professor Miyazaki's informative work is concerned with a system. . . that was, in effect, . . . the basic institution of Chinese political life, the real pillar which supported the imperial monarchy, the effective vehicle for the aspirations and ambitions of the ruling class. Imperial China without the examination system for the past thousand years and more would have developed in an entirely different way and might not have endured as the continuing form of government over a huge empire."--Pacific Affairs "The most comprehensive narrative treatment in any language of [this] enduring achievement of Chinese civilization."--American Historical Review
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Military Culture in Imperial China

The book includes two sections, the first section includes chapters introducing research advances in mechatronics engineering, and the second section includes chapters that reflects the teaching approaches (theoretical, projects, and ...

Author: Robin D. S. Yates

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674031091

Category: History

Page: 445

View: 887

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Mechatronics represents a unifying interdisciplinary and intelligent engineering science paradigm that features an interdisciplinary knowledge area and interactions in terms of the ways of work and thinking, practical experiences, and theoretical knowledge. Mechatronics successfully fuses (but is not limited to) mechanics, electrical, electronics, informatics and intelligent systems, intelligent control systems and advanced modeling, intelligent and autonomous robotic systems, optics, smart materials, actuators and biomedical and biomechanics, energy and sustainable development, systems engineering, artificial intelligence, intelligent computer control, computational intelligence, precision engineering and virtual modeling into a unified framework that enhances the design of products and manufacturing processes. Interdisciplinary Mechatronics concerns mastering a multitude of disciplines, technologies, and their interaction, whereas the science of mechatronics concerns the invention and development of new theories, models, concepts and tools in response to new needs evolving from interacting scientific disciplines. The book includes two sections, the first section includes chapters introducing research advances in mechatronics engineering, and the second section includes chapters that reflects the teaching approaches (theoretical, projects, and laboratories) and curriculum development for under- and postgraduate studies. Mechatronics engineering education focuses on producing engineers who can work in a high-technology environment, emphasize real-world hands-on experience, and engage in challenging problems and complex tasks with initiative, innovation and enthusiasm. Contents: 1. Interdisciplinary Mechatronics Engineering Science and the Evolution of Human Friendly and Adaptive Mechatronics, Maki K. Habib. 2. Micro-Nanomechatronics for Biological Cell Analysis and Assembly, Toshio Fukuda, Masahiro Nakajima, Masaru Takeuchi, Tao Yue and Hirotaka Tajima. 3. Biologically Inspired CPG-Based Locomotion Control System of a Biped Robot Using Nonlinear Oscillators with Phase Resetting, Shinya Aoi. 4. Modeling a Human''s Learning Processes toward Continuous Learning Support System, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Kouki Takemori and Keiki Takadama. 5. PWM Waveform Generation Using Pulse-Type Hardware Neural Networks, Ken Saito, Minami Takato, Yoshifumi Sekine and Fumio Uchikoba. 6. Parallel Wrists: Limb Types, Singularities and New Perspectives, Raffaele Di Gregorio. 7. A Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation System - RehabRoby, Duygun Erol Barkana and Fatih zkul. 8. MIMO Actuator Force Control of a Parallel Robot for Ankle Rehabilitation, Andrew Mcdaid, Yun Ho Tsoi and Shengquan Xie. 9. Performance Evaluation of a Probe Climber for Maintaining Wire Rope, Akihisa Tabata, Emiko Hara and Yoshio Aoki. 10. Fundamentals on the Use of Shape Memory Alloys in Soft Robotics, Matteo Cianchetti. 11. Tuned Modified Transpose Jacobian Control of Robotic Systems, S. A. A. Moosavian and M. Karimi. 12. Derivative-Free Nonlinear Kalman Filtering for PMSG Sensorless Control, Gerasimos Rigatos, Pierluigi Siano and Nikolaos Zervos. 13. Construction and Control of Parallel Robots, Moharam Habibnejad Korayem, Soleiman Manteghi and Hami Tourajizadeh. 14. A Localization System for Mobile Robot Using Scanning Laser and Ultrasonic Measurement, Kai Liu, Hongbo Li and Zengqi Sun. 15. Building of Open-Structure Wheel-Based Mobile Robotic Platform, Aleksandar Rodic and Ivan Stojkovic. 16. Design and Physical Implementation of Holonomous Mobile Robot-Holbos, Jasmin Velagic, Admir Kaknjo, Faruk Dautovic, Muhidin Hujdur and Nedim Osmic. 17. Advanced Artificial Vision and Mobile Devices for New Applications in Learning, Entertainment and Cultural Heritage Domains, Gian Luca Foresti, Niki Martinel, Christian Micheloni and Marco Vernier. 18. Application of Stereo Vision and ARM Processor for Motion Control, Moharam Habibnejad Korayem, Michal Irani and Saeed Rafee Nekoo. 19. Mechatronics as Science and Engineering - or Both, Balan Pillai and Vesa Salminen. 20. A Mechatronic Platform for Robotic Educational Activities, Ioannis Kostavelis, Evangelos Boukas, Lazaros Nalpantidis and Antonios Gasteratos. 21. The Importance of Practical Activities in the Formation of Mechatronic Engineers, Joao Carlos M. Carvalho and Vera Lcia D.S. Franco About the Authors Maki K. Habib is Professor of Robotics and Mechatronics in the School of Science and Engineering, at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. He has been regional editor (Africa/Middle East,) for the International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems (IJMMS) since 2010. He is the recipient of academic awards and has published many articles and books. J. Paulo Davim is Aggregate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is Head of MACTRIB (Machining and Tribology Research Group). His main research interests include manufacturing, materials and mechanical engineering.
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The Chinese Imperial Examination System

This is the first English publication that is a reference book to introduce the essential literature of the Chinese imperial examination system, an important guide for any reader who wishes to better understand China.

Author: Rui Wang

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780810887022

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 197

View: 435

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This is the first English publication that is a reference book to introduce the essential literature of the Chinese imperial examination system, an important guide for any reader who wishes to better understand China.
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Civil Examinations and Meritocracy in Late Imperial China

As theEpilogue to Chapter8 shows, new political, institutional, and cultural
formsemerged during the transitionfrom theQing dynasty to the RepublicofChina,
which ... My goalisnotto rehabilitate theimperial Chinese examination system.

Author: Benjamin A. Elman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674726932

Category: History

Page:

View: 355

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During China's late imperial period (roughly 1400-1900 CE), men gathered by the millions every two or three years outside official examination compounds sprinkled across China. Only one percent of candidates would complete the academic regimen that would earn them a post in the administrative bureaucracy. Civil Examinations assesses the role of education, examination, and China's civil service in fostering the world's first professional class based on demonstrated knowledge and skill. Civil examinations were instituted in China in the seventh century CE, but in the Ming and Qing eras they were at the center of a complex social web that held together the intellectual, political, and economic life of imperial China. Local elites and the court sought to influence how the government regulated the classical curriculum and selected civil officials. As a guarantor of educational merit, examinations tied the dynasty to the privileged gentry and literati classes--both ideologically and institutionally. China eliminated its classical examination system in 1905. But this carefully balanced, constantly contested piece of social engineering, worked out over centuries, was an early harbinger of the meritocratic regime of college boards and other entrance exams that undergirds higher education in much of the world today.
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Popular Culture in Late Imperial China

examinations ( for the sheng - yuan degree ) , plus those who had at one time
been t ' ung - sheng and had then abandoned the examination life . Since the
yuan shih was only a preliminary or qualifying examination , it was felt to be
improper ...

Author: David George Johnson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520061721

Category: History

Page: 449

View: 310

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Rulin Waishi and Cultural Transformation in Late Imperial China

The 18th-century Chinese novel Rulin waishi (The Unofficial History of the Scholars), Wu Jingzi's (1701-54) ironic portrait of literati life, challenges the reader to come to grips with the mid-Qing debates over ritual and ritualism, and ...

Author: Shang Wei

Publisher: Harvard Univ Council on East Asian

ISBN: UVA:X004705861

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 356

View: 355

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The 18th-century Chinese novel Rulin waishi (The Unofficial History of the Scholars), Wu Jingzi's (1701-54) ironic portrait of literati life, challenges the reader to come to grips with the mid-Qing debates over ritual and ritualism, and the construction of history, narrative, and lyricism.
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The Culture of Sex in Ancient China

In The Culture of Sex in Ancient China, Paul Rakita Goldin addresses central issues in the history of Chinese attitudes toward sex and gender from 500 B.C. to A.D. 400.

Author: Paul R. Goldin

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

ISBN: 0824824822

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

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The subject of sex was central to early Chinese thought. Discussed openly and seriously as a fundamental topic of human speculation, it was an important source of imagery and terminology that informed the classical Chinese conception of social and political relationships. This sophisticated and long-standing tradition, however, has been all but neglected by modern historians. In The Culture of Sex in Ancient China, Paul Rakita Goldin addresses central issues in the history of Chinese attitudes toward sex and gender from 500 B.C. to A.D. 400. A survey of major pre-imperial sources, including some of the most revered and influential texts in the Chinese tradition, reveals the use of the image of copulation as a metaphor for various human relations, such as those between a worshiper and his or her deity or a ruler and his subjects. In his examination of early Confucian views of women, Goldin notes that, while contradictions and ambiguities existed in the articulation of these views, women were nevertheless regarded as full participants in the Confucian project of self-transformation. He goes on to show how assumptions concerning the relationship of sexual behavior to political activity (assumptions reinforced by the habitual use of various literary tropes discussed earlier in the book) led to increasing attempts to regulate sexual behavior throughout the Han dynasty. Following the fall of the Han, this ideology was rejected by the aristocracy, who continually resisted claims of sovereignty made by impotent emperors in a succession of short-lived dynasties. Erudite and immensely entertaining, this study of intellectual conceptions of sex and sexuality in China will be welcomed by students and scholars of early China and by those with an interest in the comparative development of ancient cultures.
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Imperial China 900 1800

In this history of China for the 900-year span of the late imperial period, Mote highlights the personal characteristics of the rulers and dynasties and probes the cultural theme of Chinese adaptations to recurrent alien rule.

Author: Frederick W. Mote

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674012127

Category: History

Page: 1106

View: 201

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In this history of China for the 900-year span of the late imperial period, Mote highlights the personal characteristics of the rulers and dynasties and probes the cultural theme of Chinese adaptations to recurrent alien rule. Generational events, personalities, and the spirit of the age combine to yield a comprehensive history of the civilization.
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Medicine and Society in Late Imperial China

The central theme of the book is that the economic prosperity and intellectual vibrancy of late imperial Jiangnan fostered the emergence of a community of physicians who engaged in lively debates concerning qualifications and practice, ...

Author: Yüan-ling Chao

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 1433103818

Category: History

Page: 206

View: 914

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Medicine and Society in Late Imperial China explores the vibrant medical landscape in late imperial China (1600-1850), focusing on one of the most cultured and elegant cities in the lower Yangzi region, Suzhou. The central theme of the book is that the economic prosperity and intellectual vibrancy of late imperial Jiangnan fostered the emergence of a community of physicians who engaged in lively debates concerning qualifications and practice, leading to a growing sense of identity and new ways of theorizing and practicing medicine. It shows that the classical medical tradition interacted in a fluid relationship with both the state and the folk traditions. Medicine and Society in Late Imperial China is divided into two parts. Part I provides a broad framework on the discourse on the ideal physician, as well as examining the sanhuang miao (Temple of the Three Emperors) and challenges to existing medical theories by the wenbing (warm factor) school. Part II focuses on Suzhou physicians and their writings within the broad medical tradition, illustrates a local perspective of medicine's relationship with the state through an examination of the outbreak of epidemics in Suzhou, and discusses the development of the fields of specialties in medicine.
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Literati Identity and Its Fictional Representations in Late Imperial China

Examining three works of vernacular fiction dating from 1750 to 1828, this book studies the intellectual and literary factors that in the mid-Qing dynasty contributed to the development of vernacular fiction of unprecedented scholarly and ...

Author: Stephen Roddy

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804731314

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 315

View: 597

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Examining three works of vernacular fiction dating from 1750 to 1828, this book studies the intellectual and literary factors that in the mid-Qing dynasty contributed to the development of vernacular fiction of unprecedented scholarly and satirical sophistication.
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An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture

This book breaks with convention and provides an overview of Chinese history in the form of special topics.

Author: Qizhi Zhang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662464823

Category: Social Science

Page: 467

View: 410

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This book breaks with convention and provides an overview of Chinese history in the form of special topics. These topics include the major issues of “A Scientific Approach to the Origins of Chinese Civilization,” “Ancient Chinese Society and the Change of Dynasties,” “The Golden Ages of the Han, Tang and Qing Dynasties: a Comparative Analysis,” “Transportation Systems and Cultural Communication in Ancient China,” “Ethnic Relations in Chinese History,” “The Systems of Politics, Law and Selecting Officials in Ancient China,” “Agriculture, Handicraft and Commerce in Ancient China,” “The Military Thought and Military Systems of Ancient China,” “The Rich and Colorful Social Life in Ancient China,” “The Evolution of Ancient Chinese Thought,” “The Treasure House of Ancient Chinese Literature and Art,” “The Emergence and Progress of Ancient Chinese Historiography,” “Reflection on Ancient Chinese Science and Technology,” “New Issues in the Modern History of China,” and “A General Progression to the Socialist Modernization of the People’s Republic of China.” The book is based on current literature and research by university students. The modern history section is relatively concise, while the topics related to ancient Chinese history are longer, reflecting the country’s rich history and corresponding wealth of materials. There is also an in-depth discussion on the socialist modernization of the People’s Republic of China. The book provides insights into Chinese history, allowing readers “to see the value of civilization through history; to see the preciseness of history through civilization.” It focuses on the social background, lifestyle and development processes to illustrate ideologies and ideas.
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Education as Cultivation in Chinese Culture

Second, the importance of the “achievement ladder” in Chinese education is
explained in relation to the traditional imperial Chinese civil service examination
that was conducted to recruit political officers for approximately 1,300 years since
 ...

Author: Shihkuan Hsu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789812872241

Category: Education

Page: 288

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Given the increasing global interest in Chinese culture, this book uses case studies to describe and interpret Chinese cultivation in contemporary Taiwanese schools. Cultivation is a concept unique to Chinese culture and is characterized by different attitudes towards teaching and learning compared to Western models of education. The book starts with a discussion of human nature in Chinese schools of philosophy and levels of goodness. Following the philosophical background is a presentation of how cultivation is practiced in Chinese culture from prenatal through high school education. The case studies focus both on how students are cultivated as they become members of Chinese society, and on what role teachers play in cultivating the children in school. In addition, supports from Chinese educational institutions, including public schools, families, and organizations such as private cram schools, are introduced and explained. In closing, the book presents a critique of the modern school reform movement and the conflicts between the reform proposals and traditional practices. Based on the collective work of Taiwanese researchers in the fields of education, history and anthropology, the book identifies the purpose of education as cultivating virtue in a process of creating an ideal person who serves society, and describes the way teachers have carried on this tradition despite its faltering status in contemporary educational discourse and in the face of reform movements.
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Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China

... authoritative text for readers and an exquisite object for connoisseurs.5Ling
Mengchu, whose father had passed the highest or jinshi level of the civil service
examinations and whose family regularly compiled scholarly books and had 267
7.

Author: Cynthia J. Brokaw

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520927797

Category: History

Page: 560

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Despite the importance of books and the written word in Chinese society, the history of the book in China is a topic that has been little explored. This pioneering volume of essays, written by historians, art historians, and literary scholars, introduces the major issues in the social and cultural history of the book in late imperial China. Informed by many insights from the rich literature on the history of the Western book, these essays investigate the relationship between the manuscript and print culture; the emergence of urban and rural publishing centers; the expanding audience for books; the development of niche markets and specialized publishing of fiction, drama, non-Han texts, and genealogies; and more.
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Gaokao

You've heard of Tiger Mom; you may have heard of Wolf Dad. Here is the book written by the kid!

Author: Yanna Gong

Publisher: China Books & Periodicals

ISBN: 0835100626

Category: Education

Page: 263

View: 870

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You've heard of Tiger Mom; you may have heard of Wolf Dad. Here is the book written by the kid!
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Intellectual Property Theory and Practice

Derived. Cultural. Product. The examination of imperial China's protection of
intellectual creations, the evolving recognition of individual intellectual endeavors
, and the aggressive administrative enforcement infrastructure in the last chapter
 ...

Author: Wenwei Guan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642552656

Category: Law

Page: 168

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This book explains China’s intellectual property perspective in the context of European theories, through a critical examination of intellectual property theory and practice focused on China’s compliance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The author’s critical review of contemporary intellectual property philosophy suggests that justifying intellectual property protection through Locke or Hegel’s property theories internalizes a theoretical paradox. “Professor Wenwei Guan’s treatment of intellectual property law and practice in the PRC offers new perspectives that enrich an already active field of study . . . This book will be a useful contribution to academic and policy discourses examining conceptual and operational dimensions of China’s intellectual property protection system and the broader process of China’s international engagement.” – Dr. Pitman B. Potter, Professor of Law, University of British Columbia, Canada “Dr. Guan reminds us of the daunting challenge of the public-private divide in forming and reforming TRIPS regime; how this regime has failed to address development needs and public concerns in developing countries like China; and how TRIPS’s ‘birth defect’ can be overcome and its evolution can be put back on the right track.” – Dr. Yahong Li, Associate Professor at Faculty of Law, Hong Kong University
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Education in East Asia

A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press. Flynn, J. F. (1991). Asian Americans: Achievement
Beyond IQ. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. He, Bingdi (1962). The Ladder of Success in ...

Author: Pei-tseng Jenny Hsieh

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781441181930

Category: Education

Page: 336

View: 233

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Education in East Asia is a comprehensive critical reference guide to education in the region. With chapters written by an international team of leading regional education experts, the book explores the education systems of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan, covering local regional developments in each country as well as recent reforms and global contexts. Including a comparative introduction to the issues facing education in the region as a whole and guides to available online datasets, this handbook will be an essential reference for researchers, scholars, international agencies and policy-makers at all levels.
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Gender and Education in China

P. Bailey, Reform the People: Changing Attitudes Towards Popular Education in
Early Twentieth Century China ... political, social and cultural reproduction, see B.
Elman, A Cultural History of Civil Service Examinations in Late Imperial China ...

Author: Paul J. Bailey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134142569

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 944

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Gender and Education in China analyzes the significance, impact and nature of women's public education in China from its beginnings at the turn of the twentieth century. Educational change was an integral aspect of the early twentieth century state-building and modernizing reforms implemented by the Qing dynasty as a means of strengthening the foundations of dynastic rule and reinvigorating China's economy and society to ward off the threat of foreign imperialism. A significant feature of educational change during this period was the emergence of official and non-official schools for girls. Using primary evidence such as official documents, newspapers and journals, Paul Bailey analyzes the different rationales for women's education provided by officials, educators and reformers, and charts the course and practice of women's education describing how young women responded to the educational opportunities made available to them. Demonstrating how the representation of women and assumptions concerning their role in the household, society and polity underpinned subsequent gender discourses throughout the rest of the century, Gender and Education in China will appeal to students and scholars of Chinese history, gender studies, women's studies as well as an interest in the history of education.
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Imagined Civilizations

Analysis of Xu's Essay The discovery of Xu Guangqi's examination by Jiao Hong
has been credited to Jiao's interest in ... of the civil examinations is Benjamin
Elman's Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China.81 Although
 ...

Author: Roger Hart

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421407128

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 518

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Accounts of the seventeenth-century Jesuit Mission to China have often celebrated it as the great encounter of two civilizations. The Jesuits portrayed themselves as wise men from the West who used mathematics and science in service of their mission. Chinese literati-official Xu Guangqi (1562–1633), who collaborated with the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) to translate Euclid’s Elements into Chinese, reportedly recognized the superiority of Western mathematics and science and converted to Christianity. Most narratives relegate Xu and the Chinese to subsidiary roles as the Jesuits' translators, followers, and converts. Imagined Civilizations tells the story from the Chinese point of view. Using Chinese primary sources, Roger Hart focuses in particular on Xu, who was in a position of considerable power over Ricci. The result is a perspective startlingly different from that found in previous studies. Hart analyzes Chinese mathematical treatises of the period, revealing that Xu and his collaborators could not have believed their declaration of the superiority of Western mathematics. Imagined Civilizations explains how Xu’s West served as a crucial resource. While the Jesuits claimed Xu as a convert, he presented the Jesuits as men from afar who had traveled from the West to China to serve the emperor.
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