For more than five centuries France has been both a European and a global power. French explorers, traders, settlers, soldiers, and missionaries journeyed to the world's farthest reaches establishing colonies, bringing millions of people under French influence and claiming vast expanses of forests, jungles, deserts, and rich mineral and maritime resources. Through continued wars with rival powers, including Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, and Germany, France lost large portions of its empire and gained others. This is a story of colorful personalities and dramatic events: Cartier's exploration of Canada, Richelieu's and Colbert's global trading companies, Champlain the colonizer, the French presence in Louisiana, the vast but short-lived French empire in India, the nefarious slave trade, and France's defeat in its prosperous Caribbean colony, St. Domingue. Century-long conflict with some of its most valued possessions, such as Vietnam and Algeria, further hastened the empire's demise after World War II.
This is a story of colorful personalities and dramatic events: Cartier's exploration of Canada, Richelieu's and Colbert's global trading companies, Champlain the colonizer, the French presence in Louisiana, the vast but short-lived French ...
Author: Frederick Quinn
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
A Timely Look Back at the Era That Shaped Our World Thousands of years of recorded history show that the main way in which human societies have been organized is as empires. Today, the evidence of recent European overseas empire’s lasting effects is all around us: from international frontiers and fusion cuisine to multiplying apologies for colonial misdeeds. European Overseas Empire, 1879-1999: A Short History explores the major events in this critical period that continue to inform and affect our world today. New access to archives and a renewed interest in the most recent era of European overseas empire building and the decolonization that followed have produced a wealth of fascinating information that has recharged perennial debates and shed new light on topics previously considered settled . At the same time, current events are once again beginning to echo the past, bringing historical perspective into the spotlight to guide our actions going forward. This book examines our collective past, providing new insight and fresh perspectives as it: Traces current events to their roots in the European overseas imperialism of the 19th and 20th centuries Challenges the notion of political, cultural, social, and economic exchanges of the era as being primarily “Europe-outward” Examines the complexity and contingency of colonial rule, and the range of outcomes for the various territories involved Explores the power dynamics of overseas empires, and their legacies that continue to shape the world today
Other British attacks on French overseas positions followed, and Free French and
Vichy French forces jockeyed for control of the empire. World War II was not only
fought in Europe and the Pacific but also across the globe, and it was not just a ...
Author: Matthew G. Stanard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The President of the French Union shall convoke the Assembly of the French
Union and shall close its sessions . ... the proposed resolutions referred to in the
preceding paragraph must relate to legislation concerning the overseas
Author: George H. Kelly
First published by George Routledge & Sons Ltd. in 1924, 1930 and 1936. When first published in 1924, Knowles' first volume on the economic history of the British Empire offered a ground-breaking comparative study, ranging from slavery to Factory Acts, from cold storage to ticks and mosquitoes, from rural cultures to plantation products, and from bush paths to railways. Following her untimely death in 1926, the manuscripts for her second and third volumes were completed and published by her husband, C.M. Knowles, in 1930 and 1936. Volume I deals with economic and development issues relating to the Empire as a whole and also specifically with India, Malaya, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda, while Volume II focuses more closely on Canada. Volume III covers the economic history of Australasia and South Africa.
that , once united , the English element would dominate the French The French
also resented all attempts of the Englishspeaking colonists to settle in western
Quebec and in the eastern townships in that part of Quebec south of the St.
Author: L. C. A. Knowles
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
In The Agency of Empire: Connections and Strategies in French Expansion (1686-1746) Elisabeth Heijmans places directors and their connections at the centre of the developments and operations of French overseas companies.
France's attempt to form an overseas empire, this was not in the centralised and
controlled ways portrayed so far.20 Companies played a significant role precisely
because they left space for directors' agency by letting directors draw on their ...
Author: Elisabeth Heijmans
Category: Political Science
The French empire between the wars is the first study of the French colonial empire at its height in the twenty years following the First World War. Based on extensive archival research, it addresses current debates about French methods of rule and their impact on colonial peoples, the origins of decolonisation, and the role of popular imperialism in French society and culture. By considering the distinctiveness of the inter-war years as a discrete period of colonial change, this book addresses several larger issues, such as tracing the origins of decolonisation in the rise of colonial nationalism, and a re-assessment of the impact of inter-war colonial rebellions in Africa, Syria and Indochina. The book also connects French theories of colonial governance to the lived experience of colonial rule in a period scarred by war and economic dislocation. The author analyses colonial decision-making in Paris and the renewed threat of global war, as well as colonial economic conditions and forms of discrimination in the empire to illustrate the process of French imperial decline.
INTRODUCTION France's inter - war empire : a framework for analysis An empire
at peace ? In the twenty years between the end of the First World War and the
start of the Second , the French overseas empire reached its greatest physical ...
Author: Martin Thomas
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Using fiction as a historical source, this study investigates how the French empire was construed and infused with meaning at three historical moments: 1784, 1835, and 1938. Showing how literary and more general conceptions of French colonialism were influenced by an awareness of how rival European powers had negotiated conquest and disengagement from empire, it illustrates how perceived loss and nostalgia for imperial pasts helped shape the French colonial enterprise across its various manifestations.
Turning to a different geographical area, and to the nineteenth century, this
chapter will examine the representation of another 'contact zone' in the French
overseas empire.1 Focusing on a fictionalization of Martinique produced in the ...
Author: Kate Marsh
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Literary Criticism
This 1992 book is a study of the 'confetti of empire', the former French colonies that remain part of France.
There is much literature on the history of French expansion. Raymond Betts,
Tricouleur: The French Overseas Empire (London, 1978) provides a useful
introduction in English, as do the sections on France in D.K. Fieldhouse, The
Author: Robert Aldrich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In the poorest countries, such as Afghanistan, Haiti, and Mali, the United States has struggled to work with governments whose corruption and lack of capacity are increasingly seen to be the cause of instability and poverty. The development and security communities call for "good governance" to improve the rule of law, democratic accountability, and the delivery of public goods and services. The United States and other rich liberal democracies insist that this is the only legitimate model of governance. Yet poor governments cannot afford to govern according to these ideals and instead are compelled to rely more heavily on older, cheaper strategies of holding power, such as patronage and repression. The unwillingness to admit that poor governments do and must govern differently has cost the United States and others inestimable blood and coin. Informed by years of fieldwork and drawing on practitioner work and academic scholarship in politics, economics, law, and history, this book explains the origins of poor governments in the formation of the modern state system and describes the way they govern. It argues that, surprisingly, the effort to stigmatize and criminalize the governance of the poor is both fruitless and destabilizing. The United States must pursue a more effective foreign policy to engage poor governments and acknowledge how they govern.
Boahen, African Perspectives, 79; Mendy, “Portugal's Civilizing Mission,” 42;
Frederick Quinn, The French Overseas Empire (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000),
189, 196. 85. Epstein, “Erzberger,” 648. 86. Fieldhouse, The Colonial Empires,
Author: M. A. Thomas
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
... been very little difference between the totals of the immigration and emigration
The only appreciable leavening of the original Dutch South African stock which is
traceable during nearly two centuries came from the French in 1685 and from ...
Author: Lilian Charlotte Anne Knowles
In this broad-ranging survey of Paris, Tahiti, Indochina, Japan, New Caledonia, and the South Pacific generally, Matt Matsuda illustrates the fascinating interplay that shaped the imaginations of both colonizer and colonized. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources, Matsuda describes the constitution of a "French Pacific" through the eyes of Tahitian monarchs, Kanak warriors, French politicos and prisoners, Asian revolutionaries and Central American laborers, among others. He argues that French imperialism in the Pacific, both real and imagined, was registered most forcefully in languages of desire and love--for lost islands, promised wealth and riches, carnal and spiritual pleasures--and political affinities. Exploring the conflicting engagements with love for and against the empire in the Pacific, this book is an imaginative and ground-breaking work in global imperial and colonial histories, as well as Pacific histories.
As the jewel of French overseas empire and her “balcony on the Pacific,”
Indochina also shaped the Oceanic colonies through the leverage of the Banque
de l'Indochine, and through the Tonkinese and Annamite workers sent to labor-
Author: Matt K. Matsuda
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Drawing on a vast array of official correspondence, merchant's letters, ship's logs, and graphic material from archives and research libraries in Canada, France, and the United States, Kenneth Banks details how France, as the most powerful nation on the Continent and possessing a tradition of maritime interest in the Americas and West Africa dating back to the earliest years of the sixteenth century, seemed destined to take a leading role in exploiting and settling the Americas and establishing posts in West Africa. That it largely failed to do so can be explained in large part by problems emanating from information exchange in an early modern authoritarian state. Banks provides a historical context for the role of communications in the development of the imperial nation-state and offers an Atlantic World perspective on the growing body of literature revising the historical role of absolutism.
She politely inquired about the area of research I hoped to tackle, and I proudly
declared, “Why, the first overseas French empire, madame.” She became
animated and began giving me many helpful hints as to where I might find more ...
Author: Kenneth J. Banks
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
This book examines how sovereignty works in the context of European integration and postcolonialism. Focusing on a group of micro-polities associated with the European Union, it offers a new understanding of international relations in the context of modern sovereignty. This book offers a systematic and comparative analysis of the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), the EU and the four affected Member States: UK, France, the Netherlands and Denmark. Contributors explore how states and state-like entities play ‘sovereignty games’ to understand how a group of postcolonial entities may strategically use their ambiguous status in relation to sovereignty. The book examines why former colonies are seeking greater room to manoeuvre on their own, whilst simultaneously developing a close relationship to the supranational EU. Methodologically sophisticated, this interdisciplinary volume combines interviews, participant observation, textual, legal and institutional analysis for a new theoretical approach to understanding the strategic possibilities and subjectivity of non-sovereign entities in international politics. Bringing together research on European integration and postcolonial theory, European Integration and Postcolonial Sovereignty Games will be of interest to students and scholars of International Relations, EU studies, Postcolonial studies, International Law and Political Theory.
The EU Overseas Countries and Territories Rebecca Adler-Nissen, Ulrik Pram
Gad ... of Algeria in 1831, a huge colonial exposition was held in Paris in 1931
which glorified the French position as the world's second largest overseas empire
Author: Rebecca Adler-Nissen
Category: Political Science
Based upon thorough statistical analysis, the book presents exhaustive case-studies of foreign investment policy in 'metropolitan' countries and of the experiences of 'host' countries throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America.
There were important differences in the operation and vision of French and
British colonialists in Africa , which left ... The best single source for analyses of
the French overseas empire® is the work of Jacques Marseille ( 1974 , 1977 ,
1984 ) .
Author: Michael J. Twomey
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics
Drawing on the most up-to-date research and theories, Greater France provides a comprehensive and lively account of France's imperial adventure, from the sands of the Sahara to the jungles of equatorial Africa, from the lush rice paddies of Indochina to the legendary isles of Polynesia. The book examines the French men and women involved in the enterprise - explorers, sailors, soldiers, priests and nuns, administrators and businessmen. It looks at the ideology of colonialism, assesses the uses and abuses to which the colonies were put, and surveys the place of the overseas empire in French political, economic and cultural life. The effects of French rule on the lives of indigenous populations receive due attention, and the growth of colonial nationalism and decolonisation form another chapter in the saga. The study concludes with an overview of the links which have remained between France and its former colonies.
The book examines the French men and women involved in the enterprise - explorers, sailors, soldiers, priests and nuns, administrators and businessmen.
Author: Robert Aldrich
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
The Seven Years? War was the world?s first global conflict, spanning five continents and the critical sea lanes that connected them. This book is the fullest account ever written of the French navy?s role in the hostilities. It is also the most complete survey of both phases of the war: the French and Indian War in North America (1754?60) and the Seven Years? War in Europe (1756?63), which are almost always treated independently. By considering both phases of the war from every angle, award-winning historian Jonathan R. Dull shows not only that the two conflicts are so interconnected that neither can be fully understood in isolation but also that traditional interpretations of the war are largely inaccurate. His work also reveals how the French navy, supposedly utterly crushed, could have figured so prominently in the War of American Independence only fifteen years later. ø A comprehensive work integrating diplomatic, naval, military, and political history, The French Navy and the Seven Years? War thoroughly explores the French perspective on the Seven Years? War. It also studies British diplomacy and war strategy as well as the roles played by the American colonies, Spain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and Portugal. As this history unfolds, it becomes clear that French policy was more consistent, logical, and successful than has previously been acknowledged, and that King Louis XV?s conduct of the war profoundly affected the outcome of America?s subsequent Revolutionary War.
... 38 39 40 the French coast; they, along with privateers, brought French coastal
shipping almost to a halt.42 Before leaving ... Machault's, Moras', and Mas- siac's,
that of using the navy's limited resources to protect the French overseas empire.
Author: Jonathan R. Dull
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
As the French public debates its present diversity and its colonial past, few remember that between 1946 and 1960 the inhabitants of French colonies possessed the rights of French citizens. Moreover, they did not have to conform to the French civil code that regulated marriage and inheritance. One could, in principle, be a citizen and different too. Citizenship between Empire and Nation examines momentous changes in notions of citizenship, sovereignty, nation, state, and empire in a time of acute uncertainty about the future of a world that had earlier been divided into colonial empires. Frederick Cooper explains how African political leaders at the end of World War II strove to abolish the entrenched distinction between colonial "subject" and "citizen." They then used their new status to claim social, economic, and political equality with other French citizens, in the face of resistance from defenders of a colonial order. Africans balanced their quest for equality with a desire to express an African political personality. They hoped to combine a degree of autonomy with participation in a larger, Franco-African ensemble. French leaders, trying to hold on to a large French polity, debated how much autonomy and how much equality they could concede. Both sides looked to versions of federalism as alternatives to empire and the nation-state. The French government had to confront the high costs of an empire of citizens, while Africans could not agree with French leaders or among themselves on how to balance their contradictory imperatives. Cooper shows how both France and its former colonies backed into more "national" conceptions of the state than either had sought.
A constitution that proclaimed the Republic to be one and indivisible remained in
place, even if the relationship of the French Republic, overseas territories, French
West Africa, and the French Union was ambiguous and contested.1 At the ...
Author: Frederick Cooper
Publisher: Princeton University Press
How did the conflict between Vietnamese nationalists and French colonial rulers erupt into a major Cold War struggle between communism and Western liberalism? To understand the course of the Vietnam wars, it is essential to explore the connections between events within Vietnam and global geopolitical currents in the decade after the Second World War. In this illuminating work, leading scholars examine various dimensions of the struggle between France and Vietnamese revolutionaries that began in 1945 and reached its climax at Dien Bien Phu. Several essays break new ground in the study of the Vietnamese revolution and the establishment of the political and military apparatus that successfully challenged both France and the United States. Other essays explore the roles of China, France, Great Britain, and the United States, all of which contributed to the transformation of the conflict from a colonial skirmish to a Cold War crisis. Taken together, the essays enable us to understand the origins of the later American war in Indochina by positioning Vietnam at the center of the grand clash between East and West and North and South in the middle years of the twentieth century.
The renewed French commitment to empire becomes more readily explicable
when related to the reconstruction of ... in numerous overseas territories that
followed it, the resurgent popular imperialism in postwar France seems
Author: Mark Atwood Lawrence
Publisher: Harvard University Press
The period between the late sixteenth and the early eighteenth centuries was one of tremendous, and ultimately decisive, shifts in the balance of political, military and economic power in both Europe and the wider world. Spain's overwhelming dominance in the 1580s seemed unassailable, yet by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 its greatness had been eclipsed, leaving supremacy to Britain, France and, in the commercial sphere, the Dutch. In these essays (five of which are previously unpublished) Jonathan Israel argues that Spain's efforts to maintain her hegemony continued to be centred on the Low Countries. One should not readily assume that Spain's order of priorities was misconceived: at times she appeared to be close to succeeding. Both France and Britain were deeply riven by religious, political and social divisions during a large part of the seventeenth century. While it is true that after Spain's final defeat, at the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), French preponderance within, and British supremacy outside, Europe seemed increasingly probable, the overthrow of James II in 1688 might well have been the prelude to political chaos and civil war in Britain. While long-term economic and social trends played a large part in shaping the outcome of events, it is also true that the impact of personalities and short-term contingencies could often be decisive.
... the Portuguese overseas empire. But what precisely were the opportunities?
The French crown, expecting to be the chief beneficiary, hastened to take the
Portuguese rebels under its protec~ tions (see Chapter VII); the Dutch though
Author: Jonathan Israel
Publisher: A&C Black