The leaders of anticolonial wars of resistance--Metacom, Pontiac, Tecumseh, and Cuauhtemoc--spread fear across the frontiers of North America. Yet once defeated, these men became iconic martyrs for postcolonial national identity in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. By the early 1800s a craze arose for Indian tragedy on the U.S. stage, such as John Augustus Stone's Metamora, and for Indian biographies as national historiography, such as the writings of Benjamin Drake, Francis Parkman, and William Apess. With chapters on seven major resistance struggles, including the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and the Natchez Massacre of 1729, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero offers an analysis of not only the tragedies and epics written about these leaders, but also their own speeches and strategies, as recorded in archival sources and narratives by adversaries including Hernan Cortes, Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, Joseph Doddridge, Robert Rogers, and William Henry Harrison. Sayre concludes that these tragedies and epics about Native resistance laid the foundation for revolutionary culture and historiography in the three modern nations of North America, and that, at odds with the trope of the complaisant "vanishing Indian," these leaders presented colonizers with a cathartic reproof of past injustices.
With chapters on seven major resistance struggles, including the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and the Natchez Massacre of 1729, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero offers an analysis of not only the tragedies and epics written about these leaders, but ...
Author: Gordon M. Sayre
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
The founding idea of "America" has been based largely on the expected sweeping away of Native Americans to make room for EuroAmericans and their cultures. In this authoritative study, David L. Moore examines the works of five well-known Native American writers and their efforts, beginning in the colonial period, to redefine an "America" and "American identity" that includes Native Americans. That Dream Shall Have a Name focuses on the writing of Pequot Methodist minister William Apess in the 1830s; on Northern Paiute activist Sarah Winnemucca in the 1880s; on Salish/Métis novelist, historian, and activist D'Arcy McNickle in the 1930s; and on Laguna poet and novelist Leslie Marmon Silko and on Spokane poet, novelist, humorist, and filmmaker Sherman Alexie, both in the latter twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Moore studies these five writers' stories about the conflicted topics of sovereignty, community, identity, and authenticity--always tinged with irony and often with humor. He shows how Native Americans have tried from the beginning to shape an American narrative closer to its own ideals, one that does not include the death and destruction of their peoples. This compelling work offers keen insights into the relationships between Native and American identity and politics in a way that is both accessible to newcomers and compelling to those already familiar with these fields of study.
As Gordon M. Sayre explains of King Philip, Pontiac, Tecumseh, and other leaders of anticolonial wars of resistance in The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero, the image of the defeated, even martyred Indian chief became an icon for American ...
Author: David L. Moore
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
Category: Social Science
"This manuscript focuses on the interactions between Native Americans and European colonists during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly the relationships that developed between the French and the Natchez, Chickasaw, and Choctaw peoples. Milne's history of the Lower Mississippi Valley and its peoples provides the most comprehensive and detailed account of the Natchez in particular, from La Salle's first encounter with what would become Louisiana to the ultimate disappearance of the Natchez by the end of the 1730s. In crafting this narrative, George Milne also analyzes the ways in which French attitudes about race and slavery influenced native North American Indians in the vicinity of French colonial settlements on the Gulf coast, and how in turn Native Americans adopted and/or resisted colonial ideology"--
Indians, Colonists, and the Landscapes of Race in French Louisiana George Edward Milne ... Gordon Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh (Chapel Hill: ...
Author: George Edward Milne
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
In the 19th-century, as the American frontier stretched inexorably towards the Pacific coast and conceptions about Native peoples and western spaces began to shift, the study of Native American linguistics also shifted to become both a professionalized research discipline and a popular literary concern of American culture. In Ethnology and Empire, Robert Lawrence Gunn contextualizes the developing political, scientific, and literary networks that connected ideas, languages, and Native peoples in light of westward expansionism. Offering a literary and archival survey of the manifold practices that constituted ethnology as an intellectual enterprise in the first half of the 19th century, Gunn reveals the manner in which developing research practices became standardized and how works of fiction, travel and captivity narratives, and Native oratory and sign language gave imaginative shape to imperial activity in the western borderlands. Through a transnational archive of U.S. literary, scientific, and cultural production, Gunn emphasizes the geographical and culturally transformative impacts of western expansionism and Indian removal for future conceptions of hemispheric American literatures. By telling stories about the traffic of words and ideas in the American borderlands, Ethnology and Empire unveils the network of peoples, spaces, and communication practices that shaped and transformed the boundaries of U.S. empire.
Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1600–1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), ... See Gordon Sayre's chapter on Tecumseh in The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero, esp.
Author: Robert Gunn
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
In the mid-1840s, Warner McCary, an ex-slave from Mississippi, claimed a new identity for himself, traveling around the nation as Choctaw performer "Okah Tubbee." He soon married Lucy Stanton, a divorced white Mormon woman from New York, who likewise claimed to be an Indian and used the name "Laah Ceil." Together, they embarked on an astounding, sometimes scandalous journey across the United States and Canada, performing as American Indians for sectarian worshippers, theater audiences, and patent medicine seekers. Along the way, they used widespread notions of "Indianness" to disguise their backgrounds, justify their marriage, and make a living. In doing so, they reflected and shaped popular ideas about what it meant to be an American Indian in the mid-nineteenth century. Weaving together histories of slavery, Mormonism, popular culture, and American medicine, Angela Pulley Hudson offers a fascinating tale of ingenuity, imposture, and identity. While illuminating the complex relationship between race, religion, and gender in nineteenth-century North America, Hudson reveals how the idea of the "Indian" influenced many of the era's social movements. Through the remarkable lives of Tubbee and Ceil, Hudson uncovers both the complex and fluid nature of antebellum identities and the place of "Indianness" at the very heart of American culture.
The Board of Indian Missions published a weekly paper there, announcing such events as the “annual meeting of the ... White Man's Indian; Bank, “Staging the 'Native'”; Bellin and Mielke, Native Acts; Sayre, Indian Chief as Tragic Hero.
Author: Angela Pulley Hudson
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Social Science
This volume presents women warriors and hero cults from a number of cultures since the early modern period. The first truly global study of women warriors, individual chapters examine figures such as Joan of Arc in Cairo, revenging daughters in Samurai Japan, a transgender Mexican revolutionary and WWII Chinese spies. Exploring issues of violence, gender fluidity, memory and nation-building, the authors discuss how these real or imagined female figures were constructed and deployed in different national and transnational contexts. Divided into four parts, they explore how women warriors and their stories were created, consider the issue of the violent woman, discuss how these female figures were gendered, and highlight the fate of women warriors who live on. The chapters illustrate the ways in which female fighters have figured in nation-building stories and in the ordering or re-ordering of gender politics, and give the history of women fighters a critical edge. Exploring women as military actors, women after war, and the strategic use of women's stories in national narratives, this intellectually innovative volume provides the first global treatment of women warriors and their histories.
Gordon M. Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), 8–10, on curses see ibid., 27–29.
Author: Boyd Cothran
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Post-Jungians Today reflects the social, cultural & professional differences that exist in the Jungian community worldwide. For anyone interested in the influence of Jungian thought in today's world, this is essential reading.
Indian Chief give us precisely that vision which is most conspicuously absent from America's narratives on the ... The Hollywood hero believes in the supreme power of will ; the Indian Chief , like the tragic hero , believes that will ...
Author: Ann Casement
Publisher: Psychology Press
Screen, Culture, Psyche illuminates recent developments in Jungian modes of media analysis, and illustrates how psychoanalytic theories have been adapted to allow for the interpretation of films and television programmes, employing Post-Jungian methods in the deep reading of a whole range of films. Readings of this kind can demonstrate the way that some films bear the psychological projections not only of their makers but of their audience, and assess the manner in which films engage the writer’s own psyche. Seeking to go beyond existing theories, John Izod explores the question of whether Jungian screen analysis can work for ordinary filmgoers - can what functions for the scholar be said to be true for people without a background in Jung’s ideas? Through detailed readings of a number of films and programmes, John Izod builds on the work previously done by Jungian film analysts, and moves on to contemplate the level of audience engagement. Offering deep readings of films directed by Kubrick and Bernardo Bertolucci, as well as satirical comedy, documentaries and twenty-first century Westerns, the book explores the extent to which they manage to make the psychological impact on spectators that films of a similar kind have done on Jungian writers. The author concludes that the screen texts with the best likelihood of impacting the culture of the audience through their collective psychological force fall at opposite ends of the size and budget range: highly personal documentaries, and the most affecting of mainstream genre movies. This innovative text will be essential reading for psychoanalysts and therapists, as well as students and scholars of film with an interest in understanding how screen products work psychologically to engage the viewer.
The Hollywood hero believes in the supreme power of will; the Indian Chief, like the tragic hero, believes that will counts for nothing ... The Hollywood hero is ingenuous; the Indian Chief is wise. (Zoja 1998: 42) Thus, Zoja argues, ...
Author: John Izod
This collection of essays was assembled to honor the memory of the late, eminent Voltaire scholar J. Patrick Lee. It includes seventeen essays by prominent scholars from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France on a variety of topics in French eighteenth-century studies. Essay titles include: “A New Genre: l’Opéra moral / Moral Opera in Eighteenth-Century France,” “Voltaire and the Uses of Censorship: The Example of the Lettres Philosophiques,” “Enlightenment Intertextuality: The Case of Heraldry in the Encyclopédie méthodique,” “Sex as Satire in Voltaire's Fiction,” “Violence, Levity, and the Dictionary in Old Regime France: Chaudon’s Dictionnaire anti-philosophique,” “L’abbé, l’amazone, le bon roi et les frelons,” “Greuze’s Self-Portraits: Figures of Artistic Identity,” “From Forest to Field: Sylvan Elegists of Eighteenth-Century France,” “The Falsification of Voltaire's Letters and the Public Persona of the Author: From the Lettres secrettes (1765) to the Commentaire historique (1776),” “The Baron de Saint-Castin, Bricaire de la Dixmerie, and Azakia (1765),” “John Law and the Rhetoric of Calculation,” “‘Le Roi des Bulgares’: Was Voltaire's Satire on Frederick the Great just too Opaque?” “Voltaire and the Voyage to Rome,” “Textual liaisons: Voltaire, Paméla and Don Quixote,” “Les petits livres du grand homme: polémique et combat philosophique chez Voltaire,” “Sentimental Horror: Enlightenment Tragedy and the Rise of the Genre Terrible,” “Voltaire and the Comic Genre: Polemics and Rhetoric.”
by a Revolutionary mind-set in search of distinctly American heroes. ... The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America: From Moctezuma to Tecumseh (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ...
Author: E. Joe Johnson
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Literary Criticism
Creolization describes the cultural adaptations that occur when a community moves to a new geographic setting. Exploring the consciousness of peoples defined as "creoles" who moved from the Old World to the New World, this collection of eighteen original essays investigates the creolization of literary forms and genres in the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. Creole Subjects in the Colonial Americas facilitates a cross-disciplinary, intrahemispheric, and Atlantic comparison of early settlers' colonialism and creole elites' relation to both indigenous peoples and imperial regimes. Contributors explore literatures written in Spanish, Portuguese, and English to identify creole responses to such concepts as communal identity, local patriotism, nationalism, and literary expression. The essays take the reader from the first debates about cultural differences that underpinned European ideologies of conquest to the transposition of European literary tastes into New World cultural contexts, and from the natural science discourse concerning creolization to the literary manifestations of creole patriotism. The volume includes an addendum of etymological terms and critical bibliographic commentary. Contributors: Ralph Bauer, University of Maryland Raquel Chang-Rodriguez, City University of New York Lucia Helena Costigan, Ohio State University Jim Egan, Brown University Sandra M. Gustafson, University of Notre Dame Carlos Jauregui, Vanderbilt University Yolanda Martinez-San Miguel, University of Pennsylvania Jose Antonio Mazzotti, Tufts University Stephanie Merrim, Brown University Susan Scott Parrish, University of Michigan Luis Fernando Restrepo, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Jeffrey H. Richards, Old Dominion University Kathleen Ross, New York University David S. Shields, University of South Carolina Teresa A. Toulouse, Tulane University Lisa Voigt, University of Chicago Jerry M. Williams, West Chester University
... were guarded better under an imperial than a national order, even though, as Gordon Sayre has argued, the ''Indian chief'' would later come to function as a ''tragic hero'' in creole national mythologies throughout the Americas.
Author: Ralph Bauer
Publisher: UNC Press Books
The Kuna of Panama, today one of the best known indigenous peoples of Latin America, moved over the course of the twentieth century from orality and isolation towards literacy and an active engagement with the nation and the world. Recognizing the fascination their culture has held for many outsiders, Kuna intellectuals and villagers have collaborated actively with foreign anthropologists to counter anti-Indian prejudice with positive accounts of their people, thus becoming the agents as well as subjects of ethnography. One team of chiefs and secretaries, in particular, independently produced a series of historical and cultural texts, later published in Sweden, that today still constitute the foundation of Kuna ethnography. As a study of the political uses of literacy, of western representation and indigenous counter-representation, and of the ambivalent inter-cultural dialogue at the heart of ethnography, Chiefs, Scribes, and Ethnographers addresses key issues in contemporary anthropology. It is the story of an extended ethnographic encounter, one involving hundreds of active participants on both sides and continuing today.
In Los ovnis de oro/Golden UFOs: Poemas indios/The Indian Poems, Ernesto Cardenal, pp. ix–xxxv. ... The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh.
Author: James Howe
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: Social Science
In the decades after the American Revolution, inhabitants of the United States began to shape a new national identity. Telling the story of this messy yet formative process, Carolyn Eastman argues that ordinary men and women gave meaning to American nationhood and national belonging by first learning to imagine themselves as members of a shared public. She reveals that the creation of this American public—which only gradually developed nationalistic qualities—took place as men and women engaged with oratory and print media not only as readers and listeners but also as writers and speakers. Eastman paints vibrant portraits of the arenas where this engagement played out, from the schools that instructed children in elocution to the debating societies, newspapers, and presses through which different groups jostled to define themselves—sometimes against each other. Demonstrating the previously unrecognized extent to which nonelites participated in the formation of our ideas about politics, manners, and gender and race relations, A Nation of Speechifiers provides an unparalleled genealogy of early American identity.
Sayre, Indian Chief as Tragic Hero, 9. 30. Bingham, Columbian Orator, 52. See also “Indian Eloquence: Speech of the Chief of the Mickmakis or Maricheets Savages,” Impartial Gazetteer and Saturday Evening's Post, May 24 and 31, 1788, ...
Author: Carolyn Eastman
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Describes the life of the Seminole chief and warrior who struggled to prevent the removal of his people from their land in Florida.
Native American History for Kids. Chicago, Ill: Chicago Review Press, 2010. Koestler-Grack, Rachel A. Osceola, 1804-1838. Mankato, Minn.: Blue Earth Books, 2003. Sayre, Gordon M. The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and ...
Author: William R. Sanford
Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
‘Indian Wars’ and the Struggle for Eastern North America, 1763–1842 examines the contest between Native Americans and Anglo-Americans for control of the lands east of the Mississippi River, through the lens of native attempts to form pan-Indian unions, and Anglo-Americans’ attempts to thwart them. The story begins in the wake of the Seven Years’ War and ends with the period of Indian Removal and the conclusion of the Second Seminole War in 1842. Anglo-Americans had feared multi-tribal coalitions since the 1670s and would continue to do so into the early nineteenth century, long after there was a credible threat, due to the fear of slave rebels joining the Indians. By focusing on the military and diplomatic history of the topic, the work allows for a broad understanding of American Indians and frontier history, serving as a gateway to the study of Native American history. This concise and accessible text will appeal to a broad intersection of students in ethnic studies, history, and anthropology.
Sayre, Gordon M. The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Schmidt, Ethan A. Native Americans in the American ...
Author: Robert M. Owens
The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature engages the multiple scenes of tension — historical, political, cultural, and aesthetic — that constitutes a problematic legacy in terms of community identity, ethnicity, gender and sexuality, language, and sovereignty in the study of Native American literature. This important and timely addition to the field provides context for issues that enter into Native American literary texts through allusions, references, and language use. The volume presents over forty essays by leading and emerging international scholars and analyses: regional, cultural, racial and sexual identities in Native American literature key historical moments from the earliest period of colonial contact to the present worldviews in relation to issues such as health, spirituality, animals, and physical environments traditions of cultural creation that are key to understanding the styles, allusions, and language of Native American Literature the impact of differing literary forms of Native American literature. This collection provides a map of the critical issues central to the discipline, as well as uncovering new perspectives and new directions for the development of the field. It supports academic study and also assists general readers who require a comprehensive yet manageable introduction to the contexts essential to approaching Native American Literature. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the past, present and future of this literary culture. Contributors: Joseph Bauerkemper, Susan Bernardin, Susan Berry Brill de Ramírez, Kirby Brown, David J. Carlson, Cari M. Carpenter, Eric Cheyfitz, Tova Cooper, Alicia Cox, Birgit Däwes, Janet Fiskio, Earl E. Fitz, John Gamber, Kathryn N. Gray, Sarah Henzi, Susannah Hopson, Hsinya Huang, Brian K. Hudson, Bruce E. Johansen, Judit Ágnes Kádár, Amelia V. Katanski, Susan Kollin, Chris LaLonde, A. Robert Lee, Iping Liang, Drew Lopenzina, Brandy Nālani McDougall, Deborah Madsen, Diveena Seshetta Marcus, Sabine N. Meyer, Carol Miller, David L. Moore, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Mark Rifkin, Kenneth M. Roemer, Oliver Scheiding, Lee Schweninger, Stephanie A. Sellers, Kathryn W. Shanley, Leah Sneider, David Stirrup, Theodore C. Van Alst, Jr., Tammy Wahpeconiah
Peyer, Bernd C. The Tutor'd Mind: Indian Missionary-Writers in Antebellum America. ... Sayre, Gordon M. The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh.
Author: Deborah L. Madsen
Category: Literary Criticism
In nineteenth century paintings, the proud Indian warrior and the Scottish Highland chief appear in similar ways--colorful and wild, righteous and warlike, the last of their kind. Earlier accounts depict both as barbarians, lacking in culture and in need of civilization. By the nineteenth century, intermarriage and cultural contact between the two--described during the Seven Years' War as cousins--was such that Cree, Mohawk, Cherokee, and Salish were often spoken with Gaelic accents. In this imaginative work of imperial and tribal history, Colin Calloway examines why these two seemingly wildly disparate groups appear to have so much in common. Both Highland clans and Native American societies underwent parallel experiences on the peripheries of Britain's empire, and often encountered one another on the frontier. Indeed, Highlanders and American Indians fought, traded, and lived together. Both groups were treated as tribal peoples--remnants of a barbaric past--and eventually forced from their ancestral lands as their traditional food sources--cattle in the Highlands and bison on the Great Plains--were decimated to make way for livestock farming. In a familiar pattern, the cultures that conquered them would later romanticize the very ways of life they had destroyed. White People, Indians, and Highlanders illustrates how these groups alternately resisted and accommodated the cultural and economic assault of colonialism, before their eventual dispossession during the Highland Clearances and Indian Removals. What emerges is a finely-drawn portrait of how indigenous peoples with their own rich identities experienced cultural change, economic transformation, and demographic dislocation amidst the growing power of the British and American empires.
Fulford, Romantic Indians, 196. James Fenimore Cooper, The Last of the Mohicans (1826; repr., New York: Penguin, 1994), 414–15. Gordon M. Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America ...
Author: Colin G. Calloway
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The Lives of Stories traces three stories of Aboriginal–settler friendships that intersect with the ways in which Australians remember founding national stories, build narratives for cultural revival, and work on reconciliation and self-determination. These three stories, which are still being told with creativity and commitment by storytellers today, are the story of James Morrill’s adoption by Birri-Gubba people and re-adoption 17 years later into the new colony of Queensland, the story of Bennelong and his relationship with Governor Phillip and the Sydney colonists, and the story of friendship between Wiradjuri leader Windradyne and the Suttor family. Each is an intimate story about people involved in relationships of goodwill, care, adoptive kinship and mutual learning across cultures, and the strains of maintaining or relinquishing these bonds as they took part in the larger events that signified the colonisation of Aboriginal lands by the British. Each is a story in which cross-cultural understanding and misunderstanding are deeply embedded, and in which the act of storytelling itself has always been an engagement in cross-cultural relations. The Lives of Stories reflects on the nature of story as part of our cultural inheritance, and seeks to engage the reader in becoming more conscious of our own effect as history-makers as we retell old stories with new meanings in the present, and pass them on to new generations.
In Muldoon's terms, she had become a spectator rather than a citizen.35 Aristotle felt that the tragic hero needed to be 'highly renowned and prosperous' so ... 36 Aristotle, Poetics, quoted in Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero, 3.
Author: Emma Dortins
Publisher: ANU Press
Memoir of Lieutenant Dumont, 1715–1747: A Sojourner in the French Atlantic
The Indians—the Natchez, I mean—sent envoys to all the other Indians, to the Choctaws, to the Chickasaws, asking them for help. ... see Gordon M. Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, ...
Author: Dumont de Montigny
Publisher: UNC Press Books
An unprecedented reading of Mexican history through the lens of performance
See Gordon M. Sayre, The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), ... of Greek tragedy because the tragedies were often translated into Latin as part of the education of indigenous scribes.
Author: Patricia A. Ybarra
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
This rereading of the history of American westward expansion examines the destruction of Native American cultures as a successful campaign of "counterinsurgency." Paramilitary figures such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett "opened the West" and frontiersmen infiltrated the enemy, learning Indian tactics and launching "search and destroy" missions. Conventional military force was a key component but the interchange between militia, regular soldiers, volunteers and frontiersmen underscores the complexity of the conflict and the implementing of a "peace policy." The campaign's outcome rested as much on the civilian population's economic imperatives as any military action. The success of this three-century war of attrition was unparalleled but ultimately saw the victors question the morality of their own actions.
Satz, Ronald N. American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Sayre, Gordon M. Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America from Moctezuma to Tecumseh.
Author: Matthew J. Flynn