The Institutional Context of Population Change

In this pioneering work, Fred C. Pampel looks at fertility, suicide, and homicide rates in eighteen high-income nations to show how they are affected by institutional structures.

Author: Fred C. Pampel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226645278

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

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Despite having similar economies and political systems, high-income nations show persistent diversity. In this pioneering work, Fred C. Pampel looks at fertility, suicide, and homicide rates in eighteen high-income nations to show how they are affected by institutional structures. European nations, for example, offer universal public benefits for men and women who are unable to work and have policies to ease the burdens of working mothers. The United States, in contrast, does not. This study demonstrates how public policy differences such as these affect childbearing among working women, moderate pressures for suicide and homicide among the young and old, and shape sex difference in suicide and homicide. The Institutional Context of Population Change cuts across numerous political and sociological topics, including political sociology, stratification, sex and gender, and aging. It persuasively shows the importance of public policies for understanding the demographic consequences of population change and the importance of demographic change for understanding the consequences of public policies.
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Immigrant entrepreneurs in a changing institutional context

Immigrant entrepreneurs are known to be heterogeneous in terms of available resources and entrepreneurial outcomes.

Author: Aliaksei Kazlou

Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press

ISBN: 9789179299897

Category:

Page: 83

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Immigrant entrepreneurs are known to be heterogeneous in terms of available resources and entrepreneurial outcomes. However, this heterogeneity, as well as immigrant entrepreneurs’ embeddedness in social networks and the institutional context of high-income welfare states such as Sweden, remains understudied. Sweden represents an interesting case as a popular immigration destination which liberalized its migration policy for entrepreneurs and changed other regulations, encouraging immigrant entrepreneurship after 2008. Theoretically, the dissertation contributes to the mixed embeddedness approach to immigrant entrepreneurship by considering three stages of the entrepreneurial process – entry, performance, and potential exit – in a changing institutional environment. Methodologically, the dissertation operationalizes the mixed embeddedness approach by studying these three stages – entry (propensity to start a business), performance (entrepreneurial incomes), and potential exit (duration in business) – among different categories of immigrants. Explanatory factors are drawn from three levels of analysis: institutional change (macro), social, ethnic and family networks (meso), and the individual’s human capital (micro). A range of statistical tools is used for empirical analyses: Difference-in-difference methods in combination with Coarsened Exact Matching and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition are used to investigate the influence of institutional change on entrepreneurial entry and performance. Survival models based on Cox regression are applied to investigate the influence of social and family ties on the likelihood of entrepreneurial exit. A combination of clustering and association analysis allows heterogeneity to be approached via the categorization of immigrant entrepreneurs. Empirically, based on rich data from Swedish registers, the dissertation reveals that the propensity to start businesses in expanding ICT industries among labour immigrants was increased, and performance in terms of income among new immigrant entrepreneurs was improved after institutional change, compared to earlier. It also stresses that family networks mitigate a lack of other resources for refugee entrepreneurs, allowing them to stay in business longer. Two main categories of new immigrant entrepreneurs were distinguished in the overall heterogeneous population. The dissertation consists of four papers and an introductory chapter. Invandrarföretagare uppvisar stor heterogenitet när det gäller tillgängliga resurser och framgång i sitt företagande. Denna heterogenitet, liksom invandrarföretagens inbäddning i sociala nätverk och i den svenska välfärdsstatens institutionella kontext, är emellertid understuderad. Sverige utgör ett intressant fall eftersom det är ett land med relativt stor invandring som efter 2008 liberaliserade migrationspolitiken för företagare och på olika sätt uppmuntrade invandrares företagande. Teoretiskt bidrar avhandlingen till mixed embeddedness-perspektivet genom att analysera tre stadier i entreprenörsprocessen: uppstart, utveckling och eventuell avveckling, i förhållande till institutionell förändring. Mixed embeddedness operationaliseras i avhandlingen genom att olika kategorier invandrare studeras vid olika steg i entreprenörsprocessen; uppstart (benägenhet att starta ett företag), utveckling (företagarinkomster) samt eventuell avveckling (varaktighet i företaget) och genom att förklarande faktorer studeras på tre analysnivåer: institutionell förändring (makro), sociala, etniska och familjenätverk (meso) samt individens humankapital (mikro). En rad statistiska verktyg används för de empiriska analyserna; Difference-in-difference-metoder i kombination med Coarsened Exact Matching och Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition används för att undersöka hur institutionella förändringar påverkar uppstart och utveckling. Överlevnadsmodeller baserade på Cox-regression tillämpas för att undersöka hur sociala nätverk och familjeband påverkar sannolikheten för avveckling. Med en kombination av klusteranalys och associationsanalys undersöks mönster i heterogeniteten bland invandrarföretagarna genom kategorisering. Empiriskt, baserat på detaljerade data från svenska register, visar avhandlingen att benägenheten att starta verksamhet inom IKT-branschen ökade bland arbetskraftsinvandrare, samt att inkomsterna bland nya invandrarföretagare förbättrades efter en period av institutionell förändring. Avhandlingen visar även att familjenätverk motverkar bristen på andra resurser för företagare med flyktingbakgrund, vilket gör att de kan stanna i verksamheten längre. Två huvudkategorier går att urskilja i den heterogena gruppen av företagare. Avhandlingen är en sammanläggning av fyra artiklar och en inledande kappa.
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Economic Growth

The Institutional Context of Population Change: Patterns of Fertility and Mortality across High-Income Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pampel, F.C. and Peters, H.E. 1995. The Easterlin effect. Annual Review of Sociology ...

Author: Steven Durlauf

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230280823

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

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Specially selected from The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2nd edition, each article within this compendium covers the fundamental themes within the discipline and is written by a leading practitioner in the field. A handy reference tool.
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The Baby Bust

The Institutional Context of Population Change : Patterns of Fertility and Mortality across High - Income Nations . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . Pew Hispanic Center . 2002. “ 2002 National Survey of Latinos .

Author: Fred R. Harris

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742538559

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 238

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Though the world's population continues to grow, total fertility rates are dropping below replacement level in many parts of the world. The Baby Bust, a landmark book of essays by demographic, economic, and political science experts, examines the global birth dearth and its causes, implications, and policy options. Focusing in large part on the United States, this book also includes data from Europe and Japan and makes important comparisons between the three regions. It concludes with suggestions for making America's future sound and prosperous, through the regularization and legalization of appropriate levels of immigration; enhancing governmental efforts to increase productivity; and finally, ending the present waste of so many underutilized members of the workforce, particularly minorities and the poor. Visit our website for sample chapters!
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The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The Institutional Context of Population Change: Patterns of Fertility and Mortality across HighIncome Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pampel, F.C. and Peters, H.E. 1995. The Easterlin effect.

Author:

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349588022

Category: Law

Page: 7300

View: 499

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The award-winning The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition is now available as a dynamic online resource. Consisting of over 1,900 articles written by leading figures in the field including Nobel prize winners, this is the definitive scholarly reference work for a new generation of economists. Regularly updated! This product is a subscription based product.
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Logistic Regression

His research focuses on patterns of demographic change and age-based public policies for the high-income nations ... He is currently working on a forthcoming book, tentatively entitled The Institutional Context of Population Change.

Author: Fred C. Pampel

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781452207612

Category: Social Science

Page: 96

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Trying to determine when to use a logistic regression and how to interpret the coefficients? Frustrated by the technical writing in other books on the topic? Pampel′s book offers readers the first "nuts and bolts" approach to doing logistic regression through the use of careful explanations and worked out examples. Pampel first offers readers a review of some basic concepts, such as exponents, percentage change, and likelihood functions. Next, he describes in some detail how taking the log of the odds eliminates the floor so that the transformation of logistic regression coefficients into coefficients that effect odds and probabilities makes more sense to readers. And, third, he describes maximum likelihood estimation through words and simple samples (along side of the formulas) so as to make the concept more concrete and the procedure easier to comprehend. Throughout the book, he emphasizes examples, explanations, and how to interpret the results of each procedure. This book will enable readers to use and understand logistic regression techniques and will serve as a foundation for more advanced treatments of the topic. Learn more about "The Little Green Book" - QASS Series! Click Here
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Economic Reforms and Fertility Behaviour

... have brought much insight to our understanding of the interrelation between socio-economic changes and population growth. Though the influences of institutional contexts on individual behaviour have received theoretical attention, ...

Author: Weiguo Zhang

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134245024

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

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Based on an intensive fieldwork in a southern Hebei village in northern China (1992/3), the author takes an institutional approach and focuses on the way deliberate Chinese state policies driven by new economic and social agendas since the late 1970s have impacted on marriage, family relations and consequently on the way fertility trends have been adversely affected; the study is also very much concerned with the human dimension and the way in which such social and economic changes are perceived and applied in a rural community. The research presented in this study goes a long way to unravelling the puzzle concerning the reasons for a very rapid decline in Chinese fertility rates, contrasting sharply with a very different fertility transition within western cultures.
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Kinshasa in Transition

POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT A series edited by Richard A. Easterlin PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED : Fertility Change in ... a New Synthesis Edited by David I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke The Institutional Context of Population Change : Patterns of ...

Author: David Shapiro

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226750574

Category: History

Page: 279

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After decades of tremendous growth, Kinshasa-capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-is now the second-largest urban area in sub-Saharan Africa. And as the city has grown-from around 300,000 people in the mid-1950s to more than five million today-it has experienced seismic social, economic, and demographic changes. In this book, David Shapiro and B. Oleko Tambashe trace the impact of these changes on the lives of women, and their findings add dramatically to the field's limited knowledge of African demographic trends. They find that fertility has declined significantly in Kinshasa since the 1970s, and that women's increasing access to secondary education has played a key role in this decline. Better access to education has also given women greater access to employment opportunities. And by examining the impact of such factors as economic well-being and household demographic composition on the schooling of children, Shapiro and Tambashe reveal how one generation's fertility affects the next generation's education. This book will be a valuable guide for anyone who wants to understand the complex and ongoing social, demographic, economic, and developmental changes in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa.
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Birth Quake

POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT A series edited by Richard A. Easterlin Previously published: Fertility Change in ... and Tom Fricke The Institutional Context of Population Change: Patterns of Fertility and Mortality across High-Income ...

Author: Diane J. Macunovich

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226500928

Category: Social Science

Page: 314

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Between 1965 and 1985, the Western world and the United States in particular experienced a staggering amount of social and economic change. In Birth Quake, Diane J. Macunovich argues that the common thread underlying all these changes was the post-World War II baby boom—in particular, the passage of the baby boomers into young adulthood. Macunovich focuses on the pervasive effects of changes in "relative cohort size," the ratio of young to middle-aged adults, as masses of young people tried to achieve the standard of living to which they had become accustomed in their parents' homes despite dramatic reductions in their earning potential relative to that of their parents. Macunovich presents the results of detailed empirical analyses that illustrate how varied and important cohort effects can be on a wide range of economic indicators, social factors, and even on more tumultuous events including the stock market crash of 1929, the "oil shock" of 1973, and the "Asian flu" of the 1990s. Birth Quake demonstrates that no discussion of business or economic trends can afford to ignore the effects of population.
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Whither the Child

Population Studies 49 (2): 259¥279. Pampel, F. 2001. Institutional Context of Population Change. Patterns of Fertility and Mortaliy across HighIncome Nations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pearce, L., and W. Axinn. 1988.

Author: Eric P. Kaufmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317249115

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

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Birth rates are falling and fertility rates are well below replacement levels. At the same time, the economic crisis has forced governments to scale back public spending, reduce child support, and raise the retirement age, causing immense social conflict. Taking a step outside the disciplinary comfort zone, Whither the Child? asks how demography affects individuals and society. What does it feel like to live in a low fertility world? What are the consequences? Is there even a problem - economically, culturally and morally? No other book confronts so many dimensions of the low fertility issue and none engage with the thorny issues of child psychology, parenting, family, and social policy that are tackled head-on here.
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