U.N. and the Iran-Iraq War


Author: R. P. H. King
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 0788130021
Category: Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988
Page: 39
View: 9144
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Discusses relations between Iran and Iraq throughout their conflict from 1980-1986. Introduction by Gary Sick and Brian Urquhart, authors of "Douse the Spreading Iran-Iraq Flames", an article which is reprinted at the end of the book. Includes articles about the U.N. and the war, covering the initiation of the fighting, the U.N. Security Council, the shift to the U.N. Secretariat, questions and conclusions.

The Superpowers' Involvement in the Iran-Iraq War


Author: Adam Tarock
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781560725930
Category: History
Page: 251
View: 7026
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This superb book describes the superpowers' involvement in the Iran-Iraq war. The study shows how the superpowers, particularly the United States, fuelled the fire of war and in some cases encouraged Saddam Hussein in his belligerency and aggression. It also shows how the superpowers failed to condemn Iraq for invading Iran, and how in the first two years of the war both superpowers refused to demand that Iraq withdraw its forces from the vast area of Iranian territory that Saddam Hussein had occupied. Iraq was not pressured to comply with the United Nations resolution on the terms of the cease-fire.

The Iran-Iraq War

The Politics of Aggression
Author: Farhang Rajaee
Publisher: University Press of Florida
ISBN: 9780813011769
Category: History
Page: 245
View: 8085
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"Informative, well argued, intelligent, easy to read. It is necessary to publish it to avoid the perpetuation of major misunderstandings about the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran."--Yann Richard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris Before the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, international experts from Iran, Europe, the United States, and throughout the Middle East assessed the nature of Iraqi aggression against Iran in an international conference in Tehran. Under the pretext of territorial claims, that invasion in 1980 launched a revolution, one that in turn became a conventional war with international dimensions as it extended to the oil-rich Persian Gulf. For scholars and general readers who seek to unravel some of the complexities in the Middle East, this collection analyzes the causes and consequences of the Iran-Iraq war not only from the standpoint of the belligerent parties but from the perspective of Islamic and international law. Contents Introduction, Farhang Rajaee "Iraqi Attitudes and Interpretation of the 1975 Agreement" by Ibrahim Anvari Tehrani "Analyses of the Risks of War: Iran-Iraq Discord, 1979-1980" by Keith McLachlan "The War of the Cities" by S. Taheri Shemirani "Cultural Identity in Danger" by Mehdi Hojjat "The Impact of the War on Iraq" by Laith Kubba "War Responsibility: Governments or Individuals?" by Abdolrahman Alem "The USSR and the Iran-Iraq War: From Brezhnev to Gorbachev" by Mohiaddin Mesbahi "Saudi Arabia and the United States: Partnership in the Persian Gulf" by A. Reza Sheikholeslami "U.S. Reflagging of Kuwaiti Tankers" by Elizabeth Gamlen and Paul Rogers "International Law: Observations and Violations" by Bahman Baktiari "The UN Secretary-General: Attitudes and Latitudes" by Paul Tavernier "The Inherent Right of Individual Self-Defense in the Iran-Iraq War" by Djamchid Momtaz "The Problem of Retaliation in Modern Warfare from the Point of View of Fiqh" by Hamid Algar "Morale vs. Technology: The Power of Iran in the Persian Gulf War" by James A. Bill "Aggression in Historical Perspective" by Richard Bulliet "The Need for Modification and Development of the Laws of War in Modern International Law" by Saeid Mirzaee Yengejeh Farhang Rajaee is senior research fellow at the Cultural Studies and Research Institute in Tehran, the author of Islamic Values and World View, and the editor of What Is to Be Done, a collection of essays.

The Iran-Iraq War

A Military and Strategic History
Author: Williamson Murray,Kevin M. Woods
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107062292
Category: History
Page: 412
View: 9114
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A comprehensive account of the Iran-Iraq War through the lens of the Iraqi regime and its senior military commanders.

The Iran-Iraq War


Author: Efraim Karsh
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group
ISBN: 1435874994
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 96
View: 9726
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Describes the events preceding and during the Iran-Iraq War, detailing the battles, political negotiations, and consequences of the war.

The Iran-Iraq War


Author: Pierre Razoux
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674915712
Category: History
Page: 580
View: 4180
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From 1980 to 1988 Iran and Iraq fought the longest conventional war of the century. It included tragic slaughter of child soldiers, use of chemical weapons, striking of civilian shipping, and destruction of cities. Pierre Razoux offers an unflinching look at a conflict seared into the region’s collective memory but little understood in the West.

The Social Origins of the Iran-Iraq War


Author: W. Thom Workman
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub
ISBN: 9781555874605
Category: Political Science
Page: 179
View: 974
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Workman explores the origins of the Iran-Iraq war in terms of the sweeping socioeconomic transformations in both countries as they were drawn into the global economy.

The Iran-Iraq War


Author: Rob Johnson
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 113726778X
Category: History
Page: 192
View: 2058
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The Iran-Iraq War was personified by the determination and ambition of the key leaders, Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini, and characterised by mass casualties, the repression of the civilian populations and chemical warfare. Fought with lucrative oil money, it left the belligerents with crippling debts. In this important reappraisal, Rob Johnson explores the major issues surrounding the war, offers a fresh analysis of the military aspects and assesses the far-reaching consequences for the wider world. It is essential reading for anyone who wishes to understand the ensuing conflicts in the reqion, including the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

Auf Messers Schneide

Wie das Deutsche Reich den Ersten Weltkrieg verlor
Author: Holger Afflerbach
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406719708
Category: History
Page: 664
View: 9358
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Stand der Ausgang des Ersten Weltkriegs auf Messers Schneide? 100 Jahre nach der deutschen Niederlage zeichnet Holger Afflerbach die militärischen Entwicklungen nach, analysiert die politisch-strategischen Entscheidungen und zeigt, dass der Krieg auch anders hätte ausgehen können. Ein deutscher Sieg war schon nach dem Scheitern der Westoffensive im Herbst 1914 in weite Ferne gerückt. Doch gibt es nicht nur Sieg oder Niederlage. In seinem dicht argumentierenden, auf zahlreichen neuen Archivrecherchen basierenden Buch zeigt Holger Afflerbach, dass ein Unentschieden das logische Ergebnis des Ersten Weltkriegs gewesen wäre – wenn die deutsche Führung nicht schwere Fehler begangen hätte. Doch auch die Politik der Alliierten muss sehr viel kritischer gesehen werden, als es heute geschieht. Die deutsche Politik war nicht so eindeutig auf umfassende Eroberungen festgelegt, wie es dem allgemeinen Urteil entspricht, und die deutschen Friedensvorstöße hätten die Möglichkeit geboten, den Krieg zu beenden, bevor er Europa in den Abgrund riss. Doch die Alliierten gingen nicht auf sie ein, weil sie auf den Sieg gegen Deutschland fixiert waren und an ihren eigenen imperialistischen Plänen festhielten.

The Longest War

The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict
Author: Dilip Hiro
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415904072
Category: History
Page: 323
View: 1625
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In The Longest War, Dilip Hiro describes the causes and courses of the Iran-Iraq military conflict and its effect on the two antagonists, as well as the rest of the world. He reveals the intricate twists and turns of international diplomacy and the realpolitik behind the rhetoric, providing a comprehensive and admirably balanced account of the political and military aspects of the "longest war."

The Iran–Iraq War 1980–1988


Author: Efraim Karsh
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472809998
Category: History
Page: 96
View: 3209
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The Iran-Iraq War, which ended in August 1988, one month short of its eighth anniversary, was one of the longest, bloodiest and costliest Third World armed conflicts in the twentieth century. Professor Karsh addresses the causes of the Iran-Iraq War, unpacking the objectives of the two belligerents and examining how far objectives were matched by strategy. He assesses the war's military lessons regarding such key areas as strategy, tactics and escalation and in particular the use of non-conventional weapons, Finally, he examines the utility of armed force as an instrument of foreign policy.

Saddam's War: An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War


Author: N.A
Publisher: Smashbooks
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 164
View: 1990
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This paper was prepared under the task order Study on Military History (Project 1946) for the National Intelligence Council. It helps address the task order objectives of: developing a series of personal, organizational, and campaign histories of contemporary Iraq; improving and expanding our understanding of Iraq and its region; providing national security organizations with historical background material, political and personality profiles of the region, and data for long-term studies and analysis; illuminating the effects and utility of U.S. capabilities as seen by an adversary for doctrine and force developers and supporting strategic and operational planning by improving U.S. understanding of Arab military thought, the new Iraqi military, neighboring countries, and regional dynamics. The Joint Advanced Warfighting Program (JAWP) was established at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) and as part of the Joint Advanced Warfighting Division to serve as a catalyst for stimulating innovation and breakthrough change. It is cosponsored by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and the Commander, U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCO M). JAWP includes military personnel on joint assignments from each Service and civilian specialists from IDA . The program is located in Alexandria, Virginia, and includes an office in Norfolk, Virginia, to facilitate coordination with USJFCO M. This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of IDA or the sponsors of JAWP. Our intent is to stimulate ideas, discussion, and, ultimately, the discovery and innovation that must fuel successful transformation.

The Iran-Iraq War

Saddam Hussein’s Attack in the Middle East
Author: 50 MINUTES
Publisher: 50Minutes.com
ISBN: 280627320X
Category: History
Page: 48
View: 5391
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Keen to learn but short on time? Get to grips with the events of the Iran-Iraq War in next to no time with this concise guide. 50Minutes.com provides a clear and engaging analysis of the Iran-Iraq War. On 22 September 1980, Saddam Hussein attacked the Shatt al-Arab with the aim of annexing territories around it. This marked the start of a protracted war between Iraq and Iran. After eight years of hostilities that included the controversial use of chemical weapons, the war finally came to an end, with neither side achieving significant gains and both suffering a devastating number of casualties. In just 50 minutes you will: • Understand the political and social context of the war and the reasons behind the first attack • Identify the main leaders of Iran and Iraq and their role in the conflict • Analyse the outcome of the war and its impact on the futures of Iran, Iraq and the countries that supported them ABOUT 50MINUTES.COM | History & Culture 50MINUTES.COM will enable you to quickly understand the main events, people, conflicts and discoveries from world history that have shaped the world we live in today. Our publications present the key information on a wide variety of topics in a quick and accessible way that is guaranteed to save you time on your journey of discovery.

Becoming Enemies

U.S.-Iran Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979-1988
Author: James G. Blight,Janet M. Lang,Hussein Banai,Malcolm Byrne,John Tirman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442208317
Category: Political Science
Page: 394
View: 8417
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Becoming Enemies brings the unique methods of critical oral history to understand U.S. and Iranian relations from the fall of the Shah in 1978 through the Iranian hostage crisis and the Iran-Iraq war. Scholars and former officials involved with U.S.

The Iran-Iraq War

Exceeding Means - Analysis of the Decision of Saddam Hussein to Invade Iran, Longest and Bloodiest War in Middle Eastern History, Ayatollah, Shia Unrest, Sunni, Bathist Regime
Author: U. S. Military,Department of Defense (DoD),U. S. Government
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781521185308
Category:
Page: 71
View: 3089
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This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. In September 1980, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran, which initiated one of the longest and bloodiest wars in contemporary Middle Eastern history. Saddam most likely chose to use military force because of threats to his regime from Iranian-sponsored subversion which he failed to counter with diplomacy, combined with the opportunity presented by Iran's increased vulnerability after the fall of the Shah. However, Saddam's military objective was too limited to force a negotiated settlement and he inflamed Iranian nationalism, thus sparking the eight year war that greatly exceeded Iraq's means. Key lessons of this war include the importance of selecting military centers of gravity, the critical impact of assumptions that prove false, and nationalism's unpredictability and impact on war. This paper will focus on Saddam's decision to go to war and his initial strategy. The Iran-Iraq war is worth studying to understand the relationship between ends, ways and means and why Saddam exceeded his means. We will examine, from a strategic and military perspective, Saddam Hussein's decision to go to war, what he hoped to gain, why his strategy failed to balance ends and means and the lessons learned that could facilitate successful strategy in the future. In context of the era, Saddam's rule was vulnerable to domestic turmoil supported by the revolutionary regime in Iran. In 1979, after the Islamic Revolution swept Iran, resulting in the overthrow of the Shah, Iran began publicly urging the Iraqi population to rise up and overthrow the Iraqi government because of fundamental differences in the respective regimes. First, Iraq was led by the Sunni Islamic sect, which had a history of tension and conflict with the Shia, the principal Iranian Islamic sect. Secondly, after the revolution the new regime declared Iran to be the "Islamic Republic" and in its constitution described the government as "a system based on the belief in religious leadership and continuous guidance." The Iraqi Bathist regime was a secular government, and Saddam urged Arab nationalism over religious fundamentalism-he wanted to foster a homogenous society of Shia, Sunni and Kurds. Third, Iran viewed Iraq as pro-western and Iran was anti-western because of the west's support for the Shah and also because Iran perceived the west as a threat to Islam.

A City Under Siege

Tales of the Iran-Iraq War
Author: Habib Ahmadzadeh
Publisher: Mazda Pub
ISBN: 9781568592558
Category: History
Page: 91
View: 7564
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The Role of Airpower in the Iran-Iraq War


Author: Ronald E. Bergquist
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781585660230
Category: Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988
Page: 108
View: 4954
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Der Irak seit 1958

von der Revolution zur Diktatur
Author: Peter Sluglett,Marion Farouk-Sluglett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518116616
Category: Iraq
Page: 345
View: 8567
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