The "old revolutionaries" were Samuel Adams, Isaac Sears, Thomas Young, Richard Henry Lee and Charels Carroll, five men who played significant roles in the American Revolution, and who are usually overlooked in history books today. Of widely varying backgrounds and interests, all of them had thir gratest influence in the years between 1769 and 1776 and all of them saw their power transferred after the war to the men we know as "the founding fathers." In telling the stories of these men, Pauline Maier shows how the American Revolution was less a collective movement than a committment to an ideal of a republic, which different people interpreted differently, and she describes "not just why Americans made the Revolution, but what the Revolution did to them."
" In telling the stories of these men, Pauline Maier shows how the American Revolution was less a collective movement than a committment to an ideal of a republic, which different people interpreted differently, and she describes "not just ...
Author: Pauline Maier
The Old Regime and the Revolution is Alexis de Tocqueville's great meditation on the origins and meanings of the French Revolution. One of the most profound and influential studies of this pivotal event, it remains a relevant and stimulating discussion of the problem of preserving individual and political freedom in the modern world. Alan Kahan's translation provides a faithful, readable rendering of Tocqueville's last masterpiece, and includes notes and variants which reveal Tocqueville's sources and include excerpts from his drafts and revisions. The introduction by France's most eminent scholars of Tocqueville and the French Revolution, Françoise Mélonio and the late François Furet, provides a brilliant analysis of the work.
It was published by Michel Levy , the preferred publisher of the old Orleanists , in
a print run of two thousand copies . Publication was delayed for a week by the
death of Tocqueville's father and took place on 16 June . By August the first
Author: Alexis de Tocqueville
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
A collection of eight European case studies, this essential guide provides a comparative survey of all the major revolutions in the West over the past 400 years.
old revolutionaries, could be considered as the functional equivalent of a
monarchical restoration. Ultimately, the Stalinist post-revolutionary dictatorship
gave way to a revival of the original revolutionary spirit, in a less violent and more
Author: David Parker
Publisher: Psychology Press
In the years between the Revolutionary War and the drafting of the Constitution, American gentlemen—the merchants, lawyers, planters, and landowners who comprised the independent republic's elite—worked hard to maintain their positions of power. Gentlemen Revolutionaries shows how their struggles over status, hierarchy, property, and control shaped the ideologies and institutions of the fledgling nation. Tom Cutterham examines how, facing pressure from populist movements as well as the threat of foreign empires, these gentlemen argued among themselves to find new ways of justifying economic and political inequality in a republican society. At the heart of their ideology was a regime of property and contract rights derived from the norms of international commerce and eighteenth-century jurisprudence. But these gentlemen were not concerned with property alone. They also sought personal prestige and cultural preeminence. Cutterham describes how, painting the egalitarian freedom of the republic's "lower sort" as dangerous licentiousness, they constructed a vision of proper social order around their own fantasies of power and justice. In pamphlets, speeches, letters, and poetry, they argued that the survival of the republican experiment in the United States depended on the leadership of worthy gentlemen and the obedience of everyone else. Lively and elegantly written, Gentlemen Revolutionaries demonstrates how these elites, far from giving up their attachment to gentility and privilege, recast the new republic in their own image.
There is, of course, a long historiography of class conflict in the American
Revolution. ... For Samuel Adams and his generation, see Pauline Maier, The Old
Revolutionaries: Political Lives in the Age of Samuel Adams (New York: Knopf,
Author: Tom Cutterham
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Revolutions presents eight European case studies including the English revolution of 1649, the French Revolution and the recent revolutions within the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1989-1991) and examines them not only in their specific political, economic and social contexts but also as part of the wider European revolutionary tradition. A chapter on the American Revolution is also included as a revolution which grew out of European expansionism and political culture. Revolutions brings together leading writers on European history, who make a major contribution to the controversial debate on the role of revolution in the development of European history. This is a truly comparative book which includes discussion on each of the following key themes: * the causes of revolution, including the importance of political, social and economic factors * the effects of political and philisophical ideas or ideology on the revolution * the form and process of a revolution, including the importance of violence and popular support * the outcome of revolution, both short-term and long-term * the way revolution is viewed in history particularly since the collapse of Communism in Europe.
The collapse of Communism and the nature of revolution Two unforgettable
images bracket perceptions of the ... one of the most spectacular developments of
the twentieth century, when the old political order in the Soviet Union and its bloc
Author: David Parker
Since the 1950s a once-dominant interpretation of the French revolution has fallen to pieces. Elaborated by generations of distinguished left-wing French historians, this version was gradually undermined by the piecemeal criticisms of English-speaking scholars. Many of their doubts, and the controversies which they provoked, appeared in articles scattered over a wide range of learned journals and conference proceedings. This collection brings together the more important contributions of one of the leading British participants in these debates. Some of the essays explore the motivations and achievements of the old monarchy's aristocratic opponents. Others probe the development of venality of offices, one of the old regime's most distinctive institutions. A wide range of revolutionary reforms, their motivations and results, are also examined, and some of the achievements of a generation of revisionism in this field are reviewed.
Historians have shown a remarkable degree of unanimity on this question.
French historians of the old regime and the Revolution, who usually interpret the
centuries preceding the Revolution as a struggle between monarchy and
Author: William Doyle
Publisher: A&C Black
Despite their fatigue after a long journey , the young people ofter . went straight to
the former abode of Chairman Mao where he wrote this great article . The young
people restudied the article together with local old revolutionaries .
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Category: World politics
A study of the historiography of the Revolution, demonstrating the successive stages of British opinion.
England had not suffered the violent imposition of an alien revolution through
conquest , nor did she have a bitter sense of guilt ... This attitude is perhaps
indicated in the immediate reactions towards an old revolutionary brought
forward by the ...
Author: Hedva Ben-Israel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
... I . Since the French Revolution , religious institutions have been among the first
victims of most revolutionary regimes . ... religious institutions have stood as
symbols of the old regimes in the eyes of revolutionary leaders in France , Russia
Author: Binnaz Toprak
On July 14, 1789, a crowd of angry French citizens en route to the Bastille broke into the Paris Opera and helped themselves to any sturdy weapon they could find. Yet despite its long association with the royal court, its special privileges, and the splendor of its performances, the Opera itself was spared, even protected, by Revolutionary officials. Victoria Johnson’s Backstage at the Revolution tells the story of how this legendary opera house, despite being a lightning rod for charges of tyranny and waste, weathered the most dramatic political upheaval in European history. Sifting through royal edicts, private letters, and Revolutionary records of all kinds, Johnson uncovers the roots of the Opera’s survival in its identity as a uniquely privileged icon of French culture—an identity established by the conditions of its founding one hundred years earlier under Louis XIV. Johnson’s rich cultural history moves between both epochs, taking readers backstage to see how a motley crew of singers, dancers, royal ministers, poet entrepreneurs, shady managers, and the king of France all played a part in the creation and preservation of one of the world’s most fabled cultural institutions.
How the Royal Paris Opera Survived the End of the Old Regime Victoria Johnson
... Revolutionaries painstakingly dismantled or restructured core institutions of
French society from the monarchy to the schools. Not long after the storming of
Author: Victoria Johnson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
“During the first two months of 1917 Russia was still a Romanov monarchy. Eight months later the Bolsheviks stood at the helm. They were little known to anybody when the year began, and their leaders were still under indictment for state treason when they came to power. You will not find another such sharp turn in history especially if you remember that it involves a nation of 150 million people. It is clear that the events of 1917, whatever you think of them, deserve study.” --Leon Trotsky, from History of the Russian Revolution Regarded by many as among the most powerful works of history ever written, this book offers an unparalleled account of one of the most pivotal and hotly debated events in world history. This book reveals, from the perspective of one of its central actors, the Russian Revolution’s profoundly democratic, emancipatory character. Originally published in three parts, Trotsky’s masterpiece is collected here in a single volume. It serves as the most vital and inspiring record of the Russian Revolution to date. “[T]he greatest history of an event that I know.” --C. L. R. James “In Trotsky all passions were aroused, but his thought remained calm and his vision clear.... His involvement in the struggle, far from blurring his sight, sharpens it.... The History is his crowning work, both in scale and power and as the fullest expression of his ideas on revolution. As an account of a revolution, given by one of its chief actors, it stands unique in world literature.” --Isaac Deutscher
Alongside him stood the old woman Breshko-Breshkovskaia, whom the Social
Revolutionaries called the “grand- mother of the Russian Revolution,” but who
zealously forced herself as godmother on the Russian counterrevolution.
Author: Leon Trotsky
Publisher: Haymarket Books
An eloquent and provocative autobiography of an activist in the 1960s civil rights movement
I knew that many elements from the liberal-labor syndrome would be there and
that the old question of how that syndrome tries to control or undercut the black
revolutionary thrust would probably arise again. It was time to speak out — and ...
Author: James Forman
Publisher: University of Washington Press
Using a wide variety of sources previously unavailable, Hong Yung Lee offers for the first time a theoretical and historical perspective on China's ruling elite, examining their politics and the bureaucratic system in which they participate. He traces the evolution of these cadres from the guerrilla fighters who first joined the communist movement and founded the new regime in 1949 to the technocratic specialists who wield power today. In the revolution the Communist leaders built a peasant-based party organization whose members were largely recruited from uneducated poor peasants and hired laborers. Even after they became the founders of a new regime, their rural orientation and revolutionary experiences continued to affect the political process. Lee shows that the requirements of modernization have compelled the state to replace the revolutionary cadres with bureaucratic technocrats. Selected from the postliberation generation, the new leaders are more committed to problem-solving than to socialism. Despite uncertainties in the immediate future, this elite transformation signifies an end to modern China's revolutionary era. Lee argues that it seems only a matter of time before China will have a bureaucratic-authoritarian regime led by technocrats possessing a managerial perspective and a pragmatic economic orientation. Using a wide variety of sources previously unavailable, Hong Yung Lee offers for the first time a theoretical and historical perspective on China's ruling elite, examining their politics and the bureaucratic system in which they participate. He traces the evolution of these cadres from the guerrilla fighters who first joined the communist movement and founded the new regime in 1949 to the technocratic specialists who wield power today. In the revolution the Communist leaders built a peasant-based party organization whose members were largely recruited from uneducated poor peasants and hired laborers. Even after they became the founders of a new regime, their rural orientation and revolutionary experiences continued to affect the political process. Lee shows that the requirements of modernization have compelled the state to replace the revolutionary cadres with bureaucratic technocrats. Selected from the postliberation generation, the new leaders are more committed to problem-solving than to socialism. Despite uncertainties in the immediate future, this elite transformation signifies an end to modern China's revolutionary era. Lee argues that it seems only a matter of time before China will have a bureaucratic-authoritarian regime led by technocrats possessing a managerial perspective and a pragmatic economic orientation.
The members of the Gang of Four were purged , tried , and sentenced to death
only to have their sentences commuted to life imprisonment , while its followers
were hounded out of office as " three types of people . " Some old revolutionaries
Author: Hong Yung Lee
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Political Science
The Russian Revolution had a decisive impact on the history of the twentieth century. Now, following the collapse of the Soviet regime and the opening of its archives, it is possible to step back and see the full picture. In this classic work, the author incorporates data from archives that were previously inaccessible not only to Western but also to Soviet historians, as well as drawing on important recent Russian publications such as the memoirs of one of the great survivors of Soviet politics, Vyacheslav Molotov. Impeccable in its scholarship and objectivity, the book tells a gripping story of a Marxist revolution that was intended to transform the world, visited enormous suffering on the Russian people, and, like the French Revolution before it, ended up by devouring its own children. In a concluding section that will be of great interest to scholars in the field as well as the general reader, the author treats the Stalinist Great Purges as the last act of the drama of theRussian Revolution.
discrimination could be seen as a prerequisite for socialist equality ('Revolution
accomplished'). ... After all, as he implied in his comments to the Eighteenth Party
Congress in 1939, the flower of the old revolutionary working class had in fact ...
Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Influential 1851 work, the basis for later radical and anarchist theory, posits an ideal society in which frontiers are abolished, national states eliminated, and authority decentralized among communes or locality associations.
Thus, through governmental prejudice and proprietary tradition, whereof the
intimate union constitutes the whole political and economic theory of the old
liberalism, the Government — I make no allusion to individuals, I understand by
this word ...
Author: P.-J. Proudhon
Publisher: Courier Corporation
The revolutionary ideals of equality, communal living, proletarian morality, and technology worship, rooted in Russian utopianism, generated a range of social experiments which found expression, in the first decade of the Russian revolution, in festival, symbol, science fiction, city planning, and the arts. In this study, historian Richard Stites offers a vivid portrayal of revolutionary life and the cultural factors--myth, ritual, cult, and symbol--that sustained it, and describes the principal forms of utopian thinking and experimental impulse. Analyzing the inevitable clash between the authoritarian elements in the Bolshevik's vision and the libertarian behavior and aspirations of large segments of the population, Stites interprets the pathos of utopian fantasy as the key to the emotional force of the Bolshevik revolution which gave way in the early 1930s to bureaucratic state centralism and a theology of Stalinism.
That would be beautiful, Europe burning at both ends. Conversation in Barcelona
, 1917. From Victor Serge, Birth of Our Power The making of a revolutionary
culture and way of life required clearing away old forms (iconoclasm) and
Author: Richard Stites
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This is the first comprehensive examination of Leon Trotsky's view on revolutionary organizational principles, and the dynamic interplay of democratic initiative and principled centralism. Mostly in his own words, these writings are grounded in Trotsky's experience in Russia's revolutionary movement, as a leader of the International Left Opposition and Fourth International.
152-53) In another place, Trotsky wrote, “It is only by a constant active
collaboration with the new generation, within the framework of democracy, that
the Old Guard will preserve itself as a revolutionary factor.” (Challenge, 1923-25,
p. 125) The ...
Author: Dianne Feeley
Publisher: Haymarket Books
Category: Political Science
Providing historical insights essential to the understanding of contemporary China, this text presents a nation's story of trauma and growth during the early twentieth century. It explains how China's defeat by Japan in 1895 prompted an explosion of radical reform proposals and the beginning of elite Chinese disillusionment with the Qing government. The book explores how this event also prompted five decades of efforts to strengthen the state and the nation, democratize the political system, and build a fairer and more unified society. Peter Zarrow weaves narrative together with thematic chapters that pause to address in-depth themes central to China's transformation. While the book proceeds chronologically, the chapters in each part examine particular aspects of these decades in a more focused way, borrowing from methodologies of the social sciences, cultural studies, and empirical historicism. Essential reading for both students and instructors alike, it draws a picture of the personalities, ideas and processes by which a modern state was created out of the violence and trauma of these decades.
It was not until Yuan's decision to openly found a new dynasty in 1915 that the
intellectuals in general turned against him.1 The old revolutionary movement had
split in 1913 when a minority, including Sun Yat-sen, raised armed rebellion ...
Author: Peter Zarrow
Award-winning journalist Thanassis Cambanis tells the “wonderfully readable and insightful” (Booklist, starred review) inside story of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Cambanis brings to life the noble dreamers who brought Egypt to the brink of freedom, and the dark powerful forces that—for the time being—stopped them short. But he also tells a universal story of inspirational people willing to transform themselves in order to transform their society. He focuses on two pivotal leaders: One is Basem, an apolitical middle-class architect who puts his entire family in danger when he seizes the chance to improve his country. The other is Moaz, a contrarian Muslim Brother who defies his own organization to join the opposition. These revolutionaries had little more than their idealism with which to battle the secret police, the old oligarchs, and a power-hungry military determined to keep control. Basem wanted to change the system from within and became one of the only revolutionaries to win a seat in parliament. Moaz took a different course, convinced that only street pressure from youth movements could dismantle the old order. Their courageous and imperfect decisions produced an uprising with one enduring outcome: No Arab leader ever again can take the population’s consent for granted. Once Upon a Revolution is “a welcome addition to the literature on Egypt’s uprising” (Library Journal). Featuring exclusive and distinctive reporting, Thanassis Cambanis’s “fluent, intelligent, and highly informed book…convincingly explains what happened in Egypt over the last four years” (The New York Times Book Review).
There was a secular Arab nationalist who had worked for the old regime (Amr
Mousa), and another who had not (Hamdeen Sabbahi). There was a lawyer with
impeccable revolutionary credentials but no direct involvement in rabble-rousing
Author: Thanassis Cambanis
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
A historical defense of the concept of bourgeois revolution, from the sixteenth century to the twentieth.
3) The bourgeois revolution is usually consummatedwith the seizure of power,
whereas in the proletarian revolution the seizure of power is only the beginning,
and power is used as a lever for transforming the old economy and organizing
Publisher: Haymarket Books
Category: Political Science