The Pendulum Paradigm

Column 1 indicates the composition of the pendulum support wire, and column 2 indicates the coefficient of linear expansion. The expansion in a 1-m length wire resulting from a 40o C temperature change is shown in column 3.

Author: Martin Beech

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 9781612337302

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 290

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The pendulum is perhaps the simplest experimental devices ever constructed, and yet for all its simplicity it has historically enabled scientists to both investigate and enumerate gravity; the fundamental force that shapes the very universe. The pendulum has also allowed astronomers and geologists to measure the motion, mass and distribution of matter within the Earth, and its stately swing is at the very heartbeat of time. This book explores the many applications of the pendulum, from its employment as a fundamental experimental device, such as in the Cavendish torsion balance for measuring the universal gravitational constant, to its everyday, practical use in geology, astronomy and horology.
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The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

1.2 THE PENDULUM PARADIGM Taking its name from the Latin pendere, meaning to hang,2 the pendulum is one of the most important examples in dynamics and control and has been studied extensively since the time of Galileo.

Author: Daniel J. Block

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031018275

Category: Computers

Page: 105

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This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, to the nonlinear control problem of swingup control. We also discuss hybrid and switching control, which is useful for switching between the swingup and balance controllers. We also discuss important practical issues such as friction modeling and friction compensation, quantization of sensor signals, and saturation. This monograph can be used as a supplement for courses in feedback control at the undergraduate level, courses in mechatronics, or courses in linear and nonlinear state space control at the graduate level. It can also be used as a laboratory manual and as a reference for research in nonlinear control.
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Breaking the Sound Barrier

PENDULUM. PARADIGM. Books about European music history generally contain chapters on specific “schools” and “style periods” of composition and include names of their major proponents. They list significant dates and describe specific ...

Author: John Winsor

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 9780595249985

Category: Music

Page: 244

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Arguments about musical aesthetics often degenerate into "shouting matchesy that end in stalemate. In Breaking the Sound Barrier, John Winsor clears the air by presenting evidence that some works are, in fact, objectively better than others. This is a particularly timely issue because a great deal of bad music is being performed in American concert halls right now and a great deal of good music isn't. If you believe that qualitative judgment in the arts is purely subjective, this book should persuade you to rethink your position. If, on the other hand, you think there is a genuine qualitative difference between one musical work and another, this book will provide you with relevant ammunition. Winsor defines music, presents some empirical evidence from the field of music psychology, relates that evidence to events in Western music history, and explains what works and what doesn'tyand why. He demonstrates that from the advent of notation to the present, music has, in fact, progressed and not merely changed. He then exposes some major errors in modernist and postmodernist writing that have disrupted music's progress and recommends remedial action for restoring the mainstream literary tradition. "This is a challenging and thought-provoking book." yDiana Deutsch, Professor of Psychology, University of California, San Diego. "John Winsor tackles big questions about music and our perceptions, coming at them head-on. He anticipates our reactions and goes a long way toward resolving nagging issues of modern music. A clear, honest book." yKile Smith, Curator, Fleisher Collection of Orchestral Music, Free Library of Philadelphia.
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Vibro Impact Dynamics of Ocean Systems and Related Problems

The characteristic of the problem that has invited so much investigation was that spherical pendulum paradigms much more complex phenomena. Understanding the response of a paradigm gives an almost multiplicative effect in the ...

Author: Raouf A. Ibrahim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642006296

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

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The aim of this International Symposium on Dynamics of Vibro-Impact Systems is to provide a forum for the discussion of recent developments in the theory and industrial applications of vibro-impact ocean systems. A special effort has been made to invite active researchers from engineering, science, and applied mathematics communities. This symposium has indeed updated engineers with recent analytical developments of vibro-impact dynamics and at the same time allowed engineers and industrial practitioners to alert mathematicians with their unresolved issues. The symposium was held in Troy, Michigan, during the period October 1-3, 2008. It included 28 presentations grouped as follows: The first group comprises of nine papers dealing with the interaction of ocean systems with slamming waves and floating ice. It also covers related topics such as sloshing-slamming dynamics, and non-smooth dynamics associated with offshore structures. Moreover, it includes control issues pertaining to marine surface vessels. The second group consists of fifteen papers treats the interaction of impact systems with friction and their control, Hertzian contact dynamics, parameter variation in vibro-impact oscillators, random excitation of vibro-impact systems, vibro-impact dampers, oscillators with a bouncing ball, limiting phase trajectory corresponding to energy exchange between the oscillator and external source, frequency-energy distribution in oscillators with impacts, and discontinuity mapping. The third group is covered in four papers and addresses some industrial applications such as hand-held percussion machines, rub-impact dynamics of rotating machinery, impact fatigue in joint structures.
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Questioning the Music Education Paradigm

This shift demonstrates a "pendulum away from male'centred academic study, which was necessary to address issues of the inclusion and representation of and women in our field. It is our assertion, however, that the pendulum“ has swung ...

Author: Lee Bartel

Publisher: Canadian Music Educators' Association

ISBN: 9780920630907

Category: Education

Page: 322

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Twenty-three contributors turn a critical lens on the dominant music education paradigm to examine how we teach, what we teach, for what we teach, what is expected of teachers and how we teach them, whom we should be teaching, and the very assumptions and structures of which we base our practice.
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Urban Water Trajectories

privatist paradigm views water as an economic good or a commodity and rests on the centrality of the market as a ... The process of water remunicipalisation unfolds at the intersection of pendulum swings and paradigm advocacy.

Author: Sarah Bell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319426860

Category: Political Science

Page: 214

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Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are faced with a range of technical and policy options for future water systems. Water is an essential urban service, but models of provision remain highly contested with different visions for ownership of infrastructure, the scale of provision, and the level of service demanded by users. Water is a contentious political issue in the future of cities, serving different urban interests as power and water seem to flow in the same direction. Cities in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and South America provide case studies and emerging water challenges and responses. Comparison across different contexts demonstrates how the particular and the universal intersect in complex ways to generate new trajectories for urban water.
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The Cognitive Paradigm

... is a paradigm in the restricted etymological sense of the term , i.e. a prototypical example such as the ones used in grammar to show all inflectional forms of a word . In science , similarly concrete problems such as the pendulum ...

Author: Marc De Mey

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226142590

Category: Education

Page: 314

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In this study of the cognitive paradigm, De Mey applies the study of computer models of human perception to the philosophy and sociology of science. "A most stimulating, and intellectually delightful book."—John Goldsmith "[De Mey] has brought together an unusually wide range of material, and suggested some interesting lines of thought, about what should be an important application of cognitive science: The understanding of science itself."—Cognition and Brain Theory "It ought to be on the shelf of every teacher and researcher in the field and on the reading list of any student or practitioner seriously interested in how those they serve are likely to set about knowing."—ISIS
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Nonlinear Structural Mechanics

The first mechanical example is the simple pendulum shown in Fig. 1.1 subject to a horizontal force H: The pendulum problem is a paradigm in mechanics and is often employed as an archetypal nonlinear system for theoretical [22] and ...

Author: Walter Lacarbonara

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441912763

Category: Science

Page: 802

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This book reviews the theoretical framework of nonlinear mechanics, covering computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and mechanical interpretation towards design. Builds skills via increasing levels of complexity.
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Biomechanics and Biology of Movement

Thus the pendulumlike paradigm can be considered the first energysaving strategy for terrestrial locomotion . ... It has already been mentioned that the lower limb moves as an inverted pendulum during stance , thus also the body COM ...

Author: Benno Maurus Nigg

Publisher: Human Kinetics

ISBN: 0736003312

Category: Science

Page: 468

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"A text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in human performance, it uses an integrated scientific approach to explore solutions to problems in human movement. As an interdisciplinary reference volume for biomechanists, exercise physiologists, motor behaviorists, athletic trainers, therapists, kinesiologists, and students, Biomechanics and Biology of Movement offers an in-depth understanding and appreciation of the many factors comprising and affecting human movement. In addition, it will give you the insights and information you require to address and resolve individual performance problems."--BOOK JACKET.
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Interpersonal Coordination

In addition, using an experimental paradigm of swing wrist-pendulums, Schmidt et al. ... Using this wrist-pendulum paradigm, Schmidt and Turvey (1995) showed that the intrapersonal and bimanual relative phase patterning support the ...

Author: Nobuyuki Inui

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811317651

Category: Medical

Page: 244

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This book explores the fascinating area of interpersonal coordination in force production tasks, outlining the author’s extensive research to date and presenting stimulating new perspectives. The purpose is to provide a detailed exposition of current understanding of the science behind interpersonal joint action. Readers will find clear explanation of concepts from social cognition and neuroscience that are key to an understanding of the field, including the social brain hypothesis, the mirror neuron system, and joint action, as well as other relevant background information. The author then proceeds to present an overview of recent original studies on interpersonal movement coordination performed at his laboratory in Japan. These studies provide insights into such issues as complementary and synchronous force production in joint action, bidirectional transfer between joint and solo actions, and motor control hierarchy in joint action involving bimanual force. They also set the direction for integration of knowledge of physical properties and social cognition. The book will be of interest for researchers and graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences.
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