The structure of sequential behavior and its patterns have attracted the attention of researchers from various disciplines, such as game theory, human and animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, psychology, behavioral economy, and cognitive sciences. Sequential behavior seems to be involved in the processes of sequential learning, decision-making processes, and exploratory behavior. There are, however, competing hypotheses regarding the mechanisms involved in the complexity of the behavioral responses of organisms when exposed to changing environments. The behavioral response to different environmental conditions is often utilized in behavioral ecology studies, where the changes in behavior are quantified in terms of probability of dispersal, distance, and speed of movements or time budget, where the time spent on different activities (foraging, resting, explore, etc.) is registered and analyzed in terms of cost–benefit. This book represents a series of articles covering a broad spectrum of organisms and proposes the analysis of sequential behavior utilizing indices commonly applied in the estimation of developmental instability (fluctuating asymmetry, directional asymmetry, and antisymmetry) toward estimating the degree of “Behavioral Instability”. Deviations from symmetry will be interpreted in ecological and evolutionary terms, where the cost and benefits of changes of the degree of behavioral instability will be analyzed in terms of overall costs and benefits and its evolutionary significance. Presented in this collection are multidisciplinary studies (theoretical and computational as well as experimental and empirical approaches) that validate the proposed approach and pave the way for future investigation in the novel field of what is best described as behavioral instability.
The studied species were barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) (19 flocks, with a
total of 18,925 individuals), pink-footed ... Data Collection In the period March
2017 to February 2018 aerial photos ... Density Estimate = a × Distance + b (1)
An LRD with negative significant slope (a <0) indicates an 36 Symmetry 2019, 11
Author: Cino Pertoldi
When all her islands are taken into consideration, the British coastline spans almost 8,000 miles, which is longer than both Brazil's and Mexico's. From the clear blue waters of serene Cornish bays to the tempestuous seas around rugged Pembrokeshire headlands, this new book journeys around the varied shorelines of England and Wales to complete the most comprehensive survey ever taken. Stuart Fisher, bestselling author of the similarly comprehensive Canals of Britain, visits all the places of interest along the entire coastline of England and Wales: from remote countryside to modern cities, exploring history and heritage, striking architecture and dramatic engineering, wildlife, wonderful flora and fauna, art and literature. His journey takes him from industrial hubs to small villages and fishing communities, providing a keen insight into what makes each stretch of Britain's shoreline unique and special. Evocative and often dramatic colour photographs help capture the great variety of the coast, and maps, book covers, stamps and local artefacts help convey the character of each area. This comprehensive and absorbing survey is a treasure trove of interest and knowledge for walkers, cyclists, boaters, holidaymakers and indeed anyone with an interest in coastal Britain.
In 2014 the crash of a USAF helicopter, which struck pink footed geese disturbed
by the previous helicopter, spread live ... The Muckleburgh Collection is Britain's
largest working military collection with sixty armoured vehicles and guns, the ...
Author: Stuart Fisher
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Let us guide you on every step of your travels. From deciding when to go, to choosing what to see when you arrive, Insight Guide Iceland is all you need to plan your trip and experience the best of Iceland, with in-depth insider information on must-see, top attractions like the Blue Lagoon, the Snaefellsness volcano, the capital Reykjavík, the Northern Lights and hidden cultural gems like the remote region of Húnaflói and Skagafjördur. This book is ideal for travellers seeking immersive cultural experiences, from exploring the lively capital Reykjavík, the volcanic fishing port of Heimaey, the glacial lagoon of Jökulsárlón, to discovering the two natural wonders that are the Geysir and Gullfoss and going either whale-watching or puffin-spotting. - In-depth on history and culture: explore the island's vibrant history and culture, and understand its modern-day life, people and politics - Excellent Editor's Choice: uncover the best of Iceland, which highlights the most special places to visit around the island - Invaluable and practical maps: get around with ease thanks to detailed maps that pinpoint the key attractions featured in every chapter - Informative tips: plan your travels easily with an A to Z of useful advice on everything from climate to tipping - Inspirational colour photography: discover the best destinations, sights, and excursions, and be inspired by stunning imagery - Inventive design makes for an engaging, easy-reading experience - Covers Reykjavík, the Reykjanes Peninsula, the southwest, Vestmannaeyjar, the southeast, Snaefellsness and the west, the West Fjords, Húnaflói and Skagafjördur, Akureyri and surroundings, Grímsey, Lake Myvatn, the northeast, the East Fjords and the interior About Insight Guides: Insight Guides is a pioneer of full-colour guide books, with almost 50 years' experience of publishing high-quality, visual travel guides with user-friendly, modern design. We produce around 400 full-colour print guide books and maps, as well as phrase books, picture-packed eBooks and apps to meet different travellers' needs. Insight Guides' unique combination of beautiful travel photography and focus on history and culture create a unique visual reference and planning tool to inspire your next adventure.
Main Attractions Seyðisfjörður Borgarfjörður-Eystri Lögurinn lake Petra's Stone
Collection (Stöðvarfjörður) Papey Island ... The dry interior contains some starkly
beautiful wilderness areas, populated by immense flocks of pink-footed geese, ...
Author: Insight Guides
Publisher: Apa Publications (UK) Limited
This new, thoroughly updated second edition of Bradt's best-selling, comprehensive guide to Northumberland including Newcastle, Hadrian's Wall & the Coast remains the reliable source of information for discovering the far northeast of England, an area which is home to Europe's largest area of protected night sky - and England's first Dark Sky Park, a 572-square-mile expanse in Northumberland National Park. Now including over 40 walks along beaches, over hills and through valleys, as well as dedicated chapters on Northumberland National Park, Hadrian's Wall, the coast and Newcastle, among others, Bradt's Northumberland including Newcastle, Hadrian's Wall & the Coast is the ideal companion for a successful visit. Northumberland is well-known for its beaches, castles, wildlife, islands and desolate upland scenery, but despite all the attention and accolades ('most tranquil county', 'darkest night skies in England', 'Best UK County/Region [Silver Award']), Northumberland remains for the most part wonderfully crowd-free. It is the ultimate place in England to get away from it all, where you can walk all afternoon over moorland and not meet anyone, skinny-dip in lakes, or picnic on pristine sands with no one else around. Northumberland is also home to Hadrian's Wall, 'the most important Roman monument in Britain' (English Heritage), while heritage enthusiasts will find a number of world firsts and unique museums such as Tanfield Railway, where you can marvel at 19th-century steam engines in the oldest engine shed in the world. Bradt's Northumberland encourages visitors to slow down and explore the green lanes, footpaths, rivers and cycle trails that link Northumberland's 'Castle Coast' with the heather-topped hills, Roman fortresses and villages of the interior. A guide to Newcastle is found in the chapter on Tyne & Wear. Local knowledge of historic towns, heritage sites, wildlife-watching spots and countryside walks, and words and tips from local heritage experts make this an authoritative guide - and as much an entertaining armchair read as a practical guide, perfect for walkers, birdwatchers, cyclists, families, and those interested in Roman archaeology, industrial heritage and medieval castles.
Nowhere is this more vividly represented than in the Ashington Group gallery
with its collection of artworks by the Pitmen ... and a known stopping-off point for
migrantbirds (look out for pink-footed geese and snow buntings in autumn/winter)
Author: Gemma Hall
Publisher: Bradt Travel Guides