The Rise of Alchemy in Fourteenth-Century England

Plantagenet Kings and the Search for the Philosopher's Stone
Author: Jonathan Hughes
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441147772
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 6510
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Alchemists did more than try to transmute base metals into gold: they studied planetary influences on metals and people, refined plants and minerals in the search for medicines and advocated the regeneration of matter and spirit. This book illustrates how this new branch of thought became increasingly popular as the practical and theoretical knowledge of alchemists spread throughout England.Adopted by those in court and the circles of nobility for their own physical and spiritual needs, it was adapted for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of the illnesses of the body politic and its head, the king. This is the first work to synthesize all aspects of alchemy and show its contribution to intellectual, social and political life in the fourteenth century. Hughes explores a rich body of manuscripts to reveal the daily routines of the alchemist and his imaginative mindscape, and considers the contribution of alchemy to the vernacular culture and political debate, leading to a reassessment of the intellectual life of the middle ages.

Middle English Marvels

Magic, Spectacle, and Morality in the Fourteenth Century
Author: Tara Williams
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271081767
Category: History
Page: 184
View: 7044
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This multidisciplinary volume illustrates how representations of magic in fourteenth-century romances link the supernatural, spectacle, and morality in distinctive ways. Supernatural marvels represented in vivid visual detail are foundational to the characteristic Middle English genres of romance and hagiography. In Middle English Marvels, Tara Williams explores the didactic and affective potential of secular representations of magic and shows how fourteenth-century English writers tested the limits of that potential. Drawing on works by Augustine, Gervase of Tilbury, Chaucer, and the anonymous poets of Sir Orfeo and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, among others, Williams examines how such marvels might convey moral messages within and beyond the narrative. She analyzes examples from both highly canonical and more esoteric texts and examines marvels that involve magic and transformation, invoke visual spectacle, and invite moral reflection on how one should relate to others. Within this shared framework, Williams finds distinct concerns—chivalry, identity, agency, and language—that intersect with the marvelous in significant ways. Integrating literary and historical approaches to the study of magic, this volume convincingly shows how certain fourteenth-century texts eschewed the predominant trends and developed a new theory of the marvelous. Williams’s engaging, erudite study will be of special interest to scholars of the occult, the medieval and early modern eras, and literature.

Supernatural and Secular Power in Early Modern England


Author: Marcus Harmes,Victoria Bladen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317048369
Category: History
Page: 250
View: 2363
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For the people of early modern England, the dividing line between the natural and supernatural worlds was both negotiable and porous - particularly when it came to issues of authority. Without a precise separation between ’science’ and ’magic’ the realm of the supernatural was a contested one, that could be used both to bolster and challenge various forms of authority and the exercise of power in early modern England. In order to better understand these issues, this volume addresses a range of questions regarding the ways in which ideas, beliefs and constructions of the supernatural threatened and conflicted with authority, as well as how the power of the supernatural could be used by authorities (monarchical, religious, legal or familial) to reinforce established social norms. Drawing upon a range of historical, literary and dramatic texts the collection reveals intersecting early modern anxieties in relation to the supernatural, issues of control and the exercise of power at different levels of society, from the upper echelons of power at court to local and domestic spaces, and in a range of publication contexts - manuscript sources, printed prose texts and the early modern stage. Divided into three sections - ’Magic at Court’, ’Performance, Text and Language’ and ’Witchcraft, the Devil and the Body’ - the volume offers a broad cultural approach to the subject that reflects current research by a range of early modern scholars from the disciplines of history and literature. By bringing scholars into an interdisciplinary dialogue, the case studies presented here generate fresh insights within and between disciplines and different methodologies and approaches, which are mutually illuminating.

Chaucer's Poetic Alchemy

A Study of Value and its Transformation in The Canterbury Tales
Author: Sheila Fisher
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000682943
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 264
View: 6304
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Originally published in 1988. The economic changes and the growth of commerce in fourteenth century England precipitated both social changes and a preoccupation with material wealth. This book examines Chaucer's treatment of economic and ethical value in The Canterbury Tales within the context of contemporary economic and social change and in relation to the scholastic economic theory that attempted to formulate ethical standards for commercial conduct. The importance of value and its determination and transformation is evident from the two enterprises that Chaucer defines as the motivating principles for his poem. The pilgrimage to St. Thomas's shrine should effect a transformation of their spiritual value. The story-telling competition that produces the tales themselves is established to judge the value of the pilgrims' literary productions. In the Middle Ages, economic value and ethical value were not perceived as unrelated phenomena. Chaucer's concern with the interrelationship of material and moral value is apparent in the number of pilgrims who are interested in material value at the obvious expense of moral value. This book examines this along with a discussion or money's growing importance in the late Middle Ages and the determination of its value.

The Jewish Alchemists

A History and Source Book
Author: Raphael Patai
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691006420
Category: Alchemy
Page: 617
View: 5816
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In this monumental work, Raphael Patai, acclaimed author of Hebrew Myths (with Robert Graves) and The Hebrew Goddess, opens up an entirely new field in cultural history by tracing Jewish alchemy from antiquity to the nineteenth century. Until now there has been little attention given to the significant role that Jews played in the field of alchemy. Here, drawing on an enormous range of previously unexplored sources, Patai reveals that Jews were major players in what was for centuries one of humanity's most compelling intellectual obsessions. Among the myriad subjects treated in the book is the close relationship between alchemy and medicine as practiced by Jewish adepts. Other Jewish alchemists combined alchemy with magic or with kabbalistic practices. Still others became, through their alchemical efforts, the forerunners of modern chemistry. The culmination of many years of research, The Jewish Alchemists shows that alchemy was much more than the attempt at transmuting base metals into gold: it was a powerful worldview that assumed an essential unity underlying all of nature - and the power of humans to intervene, with God's help, in nature's course.

Dead from the Waist Down

Scholars and Scholarship in Literature and the Popular Imagination
Author: Anthony David Nuttall,Professor of English and Fellow A D Nuttall
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300098402
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 228
View: 6215
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At the end of the 16th century, scholars and intellectuals were seen as Faustian magicians, dangerous and sexy. By the 19th century, they were perceived as dusty and dried up, dead from the waist down, as Browning so wickedly put it. In this study, a literary critic explores the various ways we have thought about scholars and scholarship through the ages. classical scholar Isaac Casaubon who lived from 1559 to 1614; Mark Pattison, 19th-century rector at Oxford; and Mr Casaubon in George Eliot's Middlemarch. The three are intricately related, for Pattison was seen by many as the model for Eliot's Mr Casaubon and he was also the author of the best book on Isaac Casaubon. Nuttall offers a penetrating interpretation of Middlemarch and then describes how Pattison recorded his own introverted intellectual life and self-lacerating depression. He presents Isaac Casaubon, on the other hand, as a fulfilled scholar who personifies the ideal of detailed, unspectacular truth-telling, often imperilled in our own culture. Nuttall concludes with a meditation on morality, sexuality and the true virtues of scholarship.

British Literature


Author: Hazelton Spencer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: English literature
Page: N.A
View: 2444
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The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguistics


Author: Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy,Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111825726X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 704
View: 7108
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Written by an international team of leading scholars, this groundbreaking reference work explores the nature of language change and diffusion, and paves the way for future research in this rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field. Features 35 newly-written essays from internationally acclaimed experts that reflect the growth and vitality of the burgeoning area of historical sociolinguistics Examines how sociolinguistic theoretical models, methods, findings, and expertise can be used to reconstruct a language's past in order to explain linguistic changes and developments Bridges the gap between the past and the present in linguistic studies Structured thematically into sections exploring: origins and theoretical assumptions; methods for the sociolinguistic study of the history of languages; linguistic and extra-linguistic variables; historical dialectology, language contact and diffusion; and attitudes to language

The Alchemist


Author: Jonson Ben
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 6585
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The History of the English Language from the Teutonic Invasion of Britain to the Close of the Georgian Era


Author: Henry Elliot Shepherd
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: English language
Page: 227
View: 5761
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History in English Words


Author: W. H. Auden
Publisher: SteinerBooks
ISBN: 1584205121
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 7461
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The tao of bioenergetics

East-West
Author: George A. Katchmer
Publisher: Ymaa Pubns
ISBN: 9780940871281
Category: Philosophy
Page: 228
View: 6561
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Synthesizes the energy paradigms of Taoism and psychoanalysts Jung, Reich, and Lowen.

The Development of Mathematics


Author: E. T. Bell
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486152286
Category: Mathematics
Page: 656
View: 503
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Time-honored study by a prominent scholar of mathematics traces decisive epochs from the evolution of mathematical ideas in ancient Egypt and Babylonia to major breakthroughs in the 19th and 20th centuries. 1945 edition.

The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England


Author: G. A. Russell
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004098886
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 2594
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"The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England" deals with the remarkably widespread interest in Arabic in seventeenth-century England among Biblical scholars and theologians, natural philosophers and Fellows of the Royal Society, and others. It led to the institutionalisation of Arabic studies at Oxford and Cambridge Universities where Arabic chairs were set up, and immense manuscript collections were established and utilised. Fourteen historians examine the extent and sources of this Arabic interest in areas ranging from religion, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, philology, and alchemy to botany. Arabic is shown to have been a significant component of the rise of Protestant intellectual tradition and the evolution of secular scholarship at universities.

The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances


Author: Richard Rudgley
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1466886005
Category: Medical
Page: 320
View: 6556
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For all those who might like to believe that drug use has been relegated to the suburban rec rooms and ghetto crack houses of the late twentieth century, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances offers shocking, yet thoroughly enlightening evidence to the contrary. In fact, from Neolithic man to Queen Victoria, humans have abused all sorts of drugs in the name of religion, tradition, and recreation, including such "controlled substances" as chocolate, lettuce, and toads. From glue-sniffing to LSD to kava, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances provides the first reliable, comprehensive exploration of this fascinating and controversial topic. With over one hundred entries, acclaimed author Richard Rudgley covers not only the chemical and botanical background of each substance, but its physiological and psychological effect on the user. Of particular value is Rudgley's emphasis on the historical and cultural role of these mind-altering substances. Impeccably researched and hugely entertaining, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances will appeal to anyone interested in one of the most misunderstood and yet also most widespread of human activities - the chemical quest for an altered state of consciousness.

From the accession of Edward I to the death of Henry VII


Author: Henry Duff Traill
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Civilization
Page: N.A
View: 5966
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The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Medieval Civilization


Author: Aryeh Grabois,Aryeh Graboïs
Publisher: Conran Octopus
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 751
View: 3676
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Identifies historical figures, ideas, works of art and architecture, political events, and social and economic trends from the period between the fifth and fifteenth centuries, around the world

The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena


Author: J Gordon Melton
Publisher: Visible Ink Press
ISBN: 1578592593
Category: Religion
Page: 392
View: 794
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From sacred mountains and places of pilgrimage to visions and out-of-body travel, this reference explores unusual and unexplained physical events, apparitions, and other phenomena rooted in religious beliefs. Each entry features a balanced presentation and includes a description of the phenomenon, the religious claims surrounding the occurrence, and a scientific response. Touring the world and history, this comprehensive reference includes entries on angels, comets, Marian apparitions, and religious figures such as Jesus, Mohammad, and Lao Tzu.

E-Book Energy Medicine East and West

a natural history of qi
Author: David F. Mayor,Marc S. Micozzi
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702049239
Category: Medical
Page: 420
View: 3973
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Energy Medicine East and West: A Natural History of Qi provides a unique, comprehensive overview of Qi or bioenergy for students and practitioners of energy medicines, Chinese and Oriental Medicine, and all disciplines of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. Mayor and Micozzi start with a comparative historical account of the ancient concepts of Qi and vital energy before covering theories of Qi, a discussion of the organized therapeutic modalities based upon Qi and its applications to specific health and medical conditions. Contributions are included from international experts in the field. The book moves from anatomical and bioenergetic complementarity of Western vital energy and Eastern Qi, through convergence of perspectives and models to demonstrations of how the traditional therapies are being melded together in a new, original and creative synthesis. David Mayor and Marc Micozzi are experienced medical practitioners, authors and editors. David Mayor has been actively involved in bioenergy research, practice and publishing for over 30 years, and is author/editor of Electroacupuncture: A practical manual and resource (2007), as well as other acupuncture texts and studies. Marc Micozzi is Professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. As author/editor of Fundamentals of Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 4E (2011), and 25 other books, he has been writing, editing and teaching on bioenergy, Qi and related topics for 20 years. Endorsements "This wonderful book has assembled some 25 authors expressing well a view of qi which entirely does justice to its nature. Meticulously referenced, it is a milestone to set beside Maciocias Foundations of Chinese Medicine and Deadmans Manual of Acupuncture. Here at last are the beginnings of a true science of qi...There is truly nothing like it in contemporary literature. Alone, it lays the foundation for the beginnings of a modern science of qi."Richard Bertschinger, Acupuncturist and translator, Somerset, UK. "This book offers a timely and thorough examination of the experience and nature of qi, including a series of fascinating philosophical discussions with a direct application to our patients. Required reading for acupuncture practitioners seeking to justify and clarify their clinical reasoning."Val Hopwood PhD FCSP, Physiotherapist, acupuncturist, researcher and educator; Course director, MSc Acupuncture, Coventry University, UK. "Over the last decade most books on Asian medicine paid tribute to the aura of evidence-based medicine – experience counted little, RCTs were convincing. This book, at last, returns to an old tradition of debate, opening up quite a few new horizons. Reading it, my striving for knowledge was married with enjoyment and happiness. This book made me happy!" Thomas Ots MD PhD, Medical acupuncturist specialising in psychiatry, Graz, Austria; Editor-in-Chief, Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur. "To simply review the chapter headings is to know the truly remarkable expanse of this book...a wonderful bridge between the mysteries of the East and the sciences of the West...well documented, well written, and enlarging both. Enlightening...nicely depicts outstanding advances in energy psychotherapeutics, thus ultimately helping to move forward the human condition."Maurie D Pressman MD, Emeritus Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Emeritus Chairman of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia PA; past President, International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Lafayette, CO, USA.

Our Anglican Heritage, Second Edition

Can an Ancient Church be a Church of the Future?
Author: John W. Howe,Sam C. Pascoe
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 162189245X
Category: Religion
Page: 258
View: 5694
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--What is Anglicanism and how is it distinctive? --Where did it come from and where is it ? --Which beliefs, values, and practices stand at the heart of this important, global Communion? --How can its rich heritage help it move into the future? This book is an essential guide to the Anglican tradition for anyone who has ever wondered what Anglicanism-the largest Protestant denomination in the world-is all about. Now fully updated and significantly revised, this second edition of Our Anglican Heritage gives voice to the strong and vibrant evangelical roots of Anglican Christianity. Events at the start of the twenty-first century have threatened to tear the Communion apart. The authors of this book, both Episcopal clergy, each responded to the crisis in different ways. One, a bishop, chose to stay in the Episcopal Church. The other chose to lead his congregation out of the Episcopal Church and into another Anglican Province. This book is a reflection of the strong faith and heritage they still share, and a recommitment to the biblical principles that still undergird and enliven Anglicanism.