The Somali Conflict

Peacemaking needs to address the underlying causes of conflict- in Somalia land ownership and land use is a significant source of conflict and this is another area where NGOs could usefully focus resources.

Author: Mark Bradbury

Publisher: Oxfam Publications

ISBN: 0855982713

Category: History

Page: 149

View: 675

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Oxfam carries out original research on various aspects of its overseas programme, as part of a constant monitoring process, and in an effort to gain greater understanding of development programmes and practice. Although primarily a tool for institutional learning, some of the resulting reports are of wider interest. As part of its commitment to sharing experience of good practice, Oxfam publishes those reports which describe innovative research projects, evaluate particularly interesting projects or programmes, or are the proceedings of workshops or seminars. This study examines the complex range of forces that have shaped the conflict in Somalia, and recommends contributions which NGOs might make towards the building of a lasting peace.
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Media Diaspora and the Somali Conflict

This book illustrates how diasporic media can re-create conflict by transporting conflict dynamics and manifesting them back in to diaspora communities.

Author: Idil Osman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319577920

Category: Social Science

Page: 156

View: 370

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This book illustrates how diasporic media can re-create conflict by transporting conflict dynamics and manifesting them back in to diaspora communities. Media, Diaspora and Conflict demonstrates a previously overlooked complexity in diasporic media by using the Somali conflict as a case study to indicate how the media explores conflict in respective homelands, in addition to revealing its participatory role in transnationalising conflicts. By illustrating the familiar narratives associated with diasporic media and utilising a combination of Somali websites and television, focus groups with diaspora community members and interviews with journalists and producers, the potentials and restrictions of diasporic media and how it relates to homelands in conflict are explored.
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The Genesis of the Civil War in Somalia

By recognising the impact of foreign military interventions in Somalia, from superpower rivalry during the cold war to the war-on-terror, on the initiation and perpetuation of the Somali conflict, the book attempts to identify foreign ...

Author: Muuse Yuusuf

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780755627110

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 148

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This study explores the genesis of the civil war in Somalia by analysing the defeat of Somalia in the 1977 Ogaden war, asserting that this defeat, which was prompted by the intervention of the USSR, was a turning point which unleashed long term socio-political forces that led to the collapse of the central government of the country. Muuse Yuusuf analyses the history of the Somali civil war, from 1977 to the present, and the role played by various actors in the conflict such as local clans, warlords and foreign powers, and examines the present day by-products of the war, such as religious extremism. Crucially, Yuusuf looks beyond the mainstream explanation for the conflict – that of rival clans fighting over resources. By recognising the impact of foreign military interventions in Somalia, from superpower rivalry during the cold war to the war-on-terror, on the initiation and perpetuation of the Somali conflict, the book attempts to identify foreign military intervention as a new paradigm in the discourse around it.
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War and Peace in Somalia

For policymakers and researchers covering Somalia, East Africa, extremism or conflict resolution, this is a must-read.

Author: Michael Keating

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190058012

Category: Political Science

Page:

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For the last thirty years Somalia has experienced violence and upheaval. Today, the international effort to help Somalis build a federal state and achieve stability is challenged by deep-rooted grievances, local conflicts and a powerful insurgency led by Al-Shabaab. Consisting of forty-four chapters by conflict resolution specialists and the world's leading experts on Somalia, this volume constitutes a unique compendium of insights into the insurgency and its impact. War and Peace in Somalia explores the legacies of past violence, especially impunity, illegitimacy and exclusion, and the need for national reconciliation. Drawing on decades of experience and months of field research, the contributors throw light on diverse forms of local conflict, its interrelated causes, and what can be done about it. They share original research on the role of women, men and youth in the conflict, and present new insight into Al-Shabaab--particularly the group's multi-dimensional strategy, the motivations of its fighters, their foreign links, and the prospects for engagement. This ground-breaking volume illuminates the war in Somalia, and sets out what can and should be done to bring it to an end. For policymakers and researchers covering Somalia, East Africa, extremism or conflict resolution, this is a must-read.
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Conflict Resolution and Nation Building in Somalia

A B S T R A C T ABDI, MOHAMED A: BA WHITTIER COLLEGE, 1966 MPA SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, 1969 MPH FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, 1996 CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND NATION-BUILDING IN SOMALIA Publication Scheduled for January 2012 The research ...

Author: Mohamed Ali Abdi

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781469166070

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

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A B S T R A C T ABDI, MOHAMED A: BA WHITTIER COLLEGE, 1966 MPA SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, 1969 MPH FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, 1996 CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND NATION-BUILDING IN SOMALIA Publication Scheduled for January 2012 The research concentrated on the current as well as the past quagmire of the Somali conflict. Political, social and economic triggers have been identified to resolve or reduce violent conflict and disorder. The research used primary as well as secondary sources to study the issues and explore the problems inherent in an environment of scarce resources. Confrontations between the state and society were brought to a higher level of violence since the late 1970s following the Somali-Ethiopian war. The author explored avenues for reconciliation and nation-building and introduced several models as possible strategies for nation-building. Conclusively, a home-grown, traditional mechanisms model was recommended which entails the following policy prescriptions to achieve long-lasting peace and security for Somalia: 1. Governance structures of law and order. 2. Resources: De-escalating conflicts by opening up negotiating opportunities of land and property. 3. Complete demilitarization of society. 4. International cooperation. A plan by the international community to reconstruct and rehabilitate Somalia is essential if we have to avoid a relapse into a chaotic, violent situation in Somalia.
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Women of the Somali Diaspora

This book is about Somali mothers and daughters who came to Britain in the 1990s to escape civil war.

Author: Joanna Lewis

Publisher:

ISBN: 1787384810

Category:

Page: 376

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This book is about Somali mothers and daughters who came to Britain in the 1990s to escape civil war. Many had never left Somalia before, followed nomadic traditions, did not speak English, were bereaved and were suffering from PTSD.Their stories begin with war and genocide in the north, followed by harrowing journeys via refugee camps, then their arrival and survival in London. Joanna Lewis exposes how they rapidly recovered, mobilising their networks, social capital and professional skills. Crucial to the recovery of the now breakaway state of (former British) Somaliland, these women bore a huge burden, but inspired the next generation, with many today caught between London and a humanitarian impulse to return home.Lewis reveals three histories. Firstly, the women's personal history, helping us to understand resilience as an individual, lived historical process that is both positive and negative, and both inter- and intra-generational.Secondly, a collective history of refugees as rebuilders, offering insight into the dynamism of the Somali diaspora. Finally, the forgotten history and hidden legacies of Britain's colonial past, which have played a key role in shaping this dramatic, sometimes upsetting, but always inspiring story: the power of women to heal the scars of war.
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The Role Of External Actors in The Somali Civil War

Somalia has been torn by civil war for more than 2 decades now.

Author: Barbara Maingon

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1141867711

Category: International relations

Page: 154

View: 625

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Somalia has been torn by civil war for more than 2 decades now. Since the collapse of the state in 1991, no legitimate solution was found to end the war. Although the internal clan system is often seen as the cause of instability in Somalia, it is not the unique source of conflict nor has it been the main driving force of the war for more than 20 years. During the Cold War, solutions to clan divisions were tried by the communist regime of Siad Barre, but failed. Since the start of the war, the international community has tried to implement its solutions to the problem as well, but without success. In fact, the more the external actors have got involved in the crisis, the more violent it became. By looking at the different interventions conducted by the international actors in the conflict, it is possible to determine the role that external actors have played in the intensification and the prolongation of the crisis. The results of this study show that international actors in the conflict, by intervening and pressing already made-up solutions fitting their own interests, have exacerbated the divisions between the Somali people, and between the Somali society and the rest of the world, therefore encouraging violence and resentment. This research also demonstrates that the implementation of foreign solutions to settle the Somali conflict has neither been valid nor successful, and that a more comprehensive approach needs to be taken in order for the Somali people to establish a legitimate society for themselves.
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The Failure System The role of external actors in the Somali state collapse

Albeit the focus of this work is clearly the external dimension of this conflict, we shall not neglect the internal actors and factions in Somalia.

Author: Marcel Lossi

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783656062110

Category: Political Science

Page: 48

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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1,3, Helmut Schmidt University - University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg (Internationale Politik), language: English, abstract: 1. Introduction Since the fall of the Barre regime in 1991, Somalia has been the most profound and outstanding example of state failure not only in Africa but the entire world. For almost 20 years Somalia has been lost in a vicious circle which the author of this paper calls “the failure system”. It is a system of mutually reinforcing factors consisting of clan violence and a corresponding history of real or imagined marginalisation, the establishment of war economics, various jihads and last but not least the interference of a multitude of external actors. The question of this bachelor thesis is: What role did external actors take in the process of state failure in Somalia? My hypothesis is, that the Somali state collapse cannot be seen as a purely internal phenomenon but rather as a layered systemic process that has been influenced by external actors on a massive scale. The main purpose of this bachelor thesis is to outline the role of external actors in the Somali state collapse. Albeit the focus of this work is clearly the external dimension of this conflict, we shall not neglect the internal actors and factions in Somalia. Especially after the Ethiopian invasion of 2006 and the begin of the international anti-pirate mission at the Horn of Africa a whole pile of scientific literature has been written on external actors and their strategic motivations in Somalia. But usually these publications only focus on the external actors and their motivations without appropriately addressing internal dynamics. In order to bridge the gap of understanding between the layers of internal and external conflict dimensions, this work tries to create a holistic and systemic big picture view of the Somali state collapse by outlining historical, sociological, internal and external factors alike. To achieve this goal, this work has been divided into three main parts. The first part will briefly describe the Somali history. I will at first outline the historic developments before 1991 to give an impression of the long-term development of the country. Subsequently the clan structure and its relevance will be addressed to answer the question why such a high internal conflict potential could arise in Somalia despite far reaching ethnic, cultural, religious and lingual homogeneity. Afterwards the historic events in the state-failure period from 1991-2009 will be described. The main sources for this
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History of Somalia

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Author: Source Wikipedia

Publisher: University-Press.org

ISBN: 1230572716

Category:

Page: 160

View: 417

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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 159. Chapters: Mohamed Farrah Aidid, British Somaliland, East African Campaign, Al-Shabaab, War in Somalia, Advance of the Islamic Courts Union, Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts in the Somali Civil War, Warsangali Sultanate, Battle of Ras Kamboni, Ajuuraan State, Somali National Movement, Italian conquest of British Somaliland, History of Mogadishu, Maritime history of Somalia, History of the Transitional Federal Government of the Republic of Somalia, Italian Somaliland, Disarmament in Somalia, Ogaden War, Unified Task Force, United Nations Operation in Somalia II, Jubaland, Zeila, Hizbul Islam, Factions in the Somali Civil War, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, Attempts at reconciliation in Somalia, Consolidation of states within Somalia, 1920 conflict between British forces and the Dervish State, Propaganda in the War in Somalia, Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Ethiopian-Somali conflict, Hobyo, Operation United Shield, Somalian Revolution, Somaliland Camel Corps, Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Somali Democratic Republic, Sultanate of Hobyo, Somali Youth League, Adal Sultanate, Qandala, Somali Studies, Mogadishu-Villabruzzi Railway, Gerad Dhidhin, House of Galluweger, Action of 18 March 2006, Warsangeli Daraawiish, Ethiopian-Adal War, Prime Minister of Somalia, Operation Provide Relief, Zaptie, List of Presidents of Somalia, List of colonial heads of Italian Somaliland, Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, Western Somali Liberation Front, Gobroon Dynasty, Effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on Somalia, List of colonial heads of British Somaliland, Gerad Ali Dable, Action of 25 March 2010, Opone, Action of 30 March 2010, Dubats, Abdullahi Issa, Mogadishu Mile, Transitional National Government, Ahmed Mohamed Islam, Francesco De Martini, Haud, Battle of South Mogadishu, Salvatore Colombo, List of Presidents of Somaliland, Muaskar Anole, Ras...
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Conflict Analysis of Somalia

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, language: English, abstract: The American business magazine ,,Forbes” regularly ...

Author: Paula Müller

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668843158

Category: Political Science

Page: 30

View: 175

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Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, language: English, abstract: The American business magazine ,,Forbes” regularly publishes among various rankings „The world’s most dangerous countries” based on crime rates, police protection, civil unrest, terrorism risk, kidnapping threat and geopolitical stability. In 2012, the top three were: Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia. The third most dangerous country, Somalia, is also on the top of many other rankings; for instance it holds the first place of Forbes ,,Most Corrupt Countries” ahead of North Korea since 2008.56) For 22 years, there hasn’t been any established government and even international interventions by the UNO and the USA in order to stop the civil war and restore peace failed; but what are the conflicts in Somalia actually about? This paper is going to explain the Somali civil war, it’s roots and future prospects. Therefore, it is divided in seven main chapters: geographical aspect, historical aspect, ethnic aspect, political aspect, social aspect, economic aspect and future prospects. Each aspect illustrates the particular part of the conflict and after the future prospects based on a personal assessment there will be a summary of the conflict’s main issues. Since there is neither an established government nor any other official registration it is hard to find reliable data and statistics. Most of them are based on estimates and cannot keep up with the fast changes. That is why the figures in this paper may not be absolutely correct but nevertheless they can give a general idea of Somalia’s situation.
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Why Somalis Flee

Mr Gersony focuses on incidents of violence against unarmed, civilian non-combatants as the root cause of flight. He divides this section into seven nominal categories of conflict experience.

Author: Robert Gersony

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105080975191

Category: Ethiopians

Page: 130

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Somalia The Untold Story

Explores the experiences of women in Somalia and how they have survived the trauma of war.

Author: Judith Gardner

Publisher: CIIR

ISBN: 0745322085

Category: History

Page: 257

View: 236

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Explores the experiences of women in Somalia and how they have survived the trauma of war.
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Consider Somaliland

This book investigates the fascinating case of “Somaliland”, the 20-year old non-recognized state which emerged from Somalia’s conflict and state collapse.

Author: Marleen Renders

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004218482

Category: History

Page: 289

View: 316

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Can ‘traditional’ leaders and institutions help to build more legitimate, accountable and effective governments in polities or ‘states’ under (re)construction? This book investigates the fascinating case of “Somaliland”, the 20-year old non-recognized state which emerged from Somalia’s conflict and state collapse.
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Destroying and Constructing the State from Below

While these are important puzzle pieces, they fail to explain the underlying reality in Somalia today.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:820964571

Category:

Page: 502

View: 961

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For many scholars and politicians, Somalia is a premier example of anarchy, having been without a central government since 1991 and has been described as "a failure amongst failed states". Somalia's statelessness and the ongoing conflict has been explained as being due to Somalis' general antipathy towards authority, preference for chaos, history of clan rivalries and Somalia's Cold War alliances with the USSR and the US and by intervention from neighboring countries. While these are important puzzle pieces, they fail to explain the underlying reality in Somalia today. Much of the literature on diaspora is focused primarily on their development contributions with a few examining their conflict-perpetuating activities and even less their role in governance. This dissertation seeks to build and expand on this literature by exploring the ways that the diaspora not only engages in development, conflict and politics but also the manner by which they can take part in governance including collapsing the state as well as state-building from below. Using the Somalia case, I ask: What are the ways that the diaspora promotes development, contributes to conflict and engages in governance? How did the Somali diaspora contribute to the collapse of the Somali state? How have their activities contributed to the emergence and destruction of local institutions after the collapse of the central state in Somalia? In examining their different activities in and towards Somalia, this research finds that the diaspora were an important factor in the collapse of the Somali state through their funding of rebel groups, directing remittances away from state control and their opposition to the state. Secondly, their continuous and constant remittances have provided a lifeline for Somalis at home, the provision of basic services including security are obtained through the clan, which receives funding from the diaspora. This has strengthened clan identities, undermining national identities, which is critical for the reconstitution of the Somali state. Finally, there has been no consideration by states in how to mitigate the activities of the diaspora while promoting their positive contributions resulting in a diaspora, which has an undue influence in what happens within Somalia.
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Somalia at the Crossroads

This book hopes to contribute in filling this gap. Contributors to the volume examine the various issues that lie behind the current situation in Somalia, seeking answers to a number of crucial questions: Why did the Somali state fail?

Author: Abdulahi A. Osman

Publisher: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd

ISBN: 9781909112872

Category: Reference

Page: 242

View: 916

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Since the fall of the Siad Bare regime in Somalia in 1991 and the fratricidal war that it unleashed in its wake, Somalia has been without an effective central government. Instead, warlords and their armed bandits have been controlling different parts of the country, with the former British colony of northern Somaliland unilaterally proclaiming its independence. Developments in the country since the recent transitional government was set up in 2004 have, however, presented both opportunities and challenges for the country. While much has been reported about the prevailing situation in the country, there has been a paucity of research articulating the various perspectives and challenges in the efforts to reconstitute Somalia's failed state. This book hopes to contribute in filling this gap. Contributors to the volume examine the various issues that lie behind the current situation in Somalia, seeking answers to a number of crucial questions: Why did the Somali state fail? What role did external actors and the internal configurations of the Somalis' socio-political structure play in the state collapse? Did the various peace and reconciliation conferences really achieve anything? Should Somalia be reconstituted as one state or should more than one state be allowed to emerge from the ashes of the collapsed state? What is the way forward out of the current imbroglio in Somalia?
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