The Viologens

Chapter 10 Photochemistry of the Viologens and Solar - energy Conversion 208 209 210 210 211 211 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Photochemistry of Methyl Viologen 10.3 Photochemistry of Viologen Charge - transfer Complexes 10.3.1 Viologens in ...

Author: Paul M. S. Monk

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: UOM:39015046875061

Category: Science

Page: 311

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The Viologens Physicochemical Properties, Synthesis and Applications of the Salts of 4,4'-Bipyridine Paul M. S. Monk Manchester Metropolitan University, UK Viologens are salts of 4,4'-bipyridine and are used in such fields as herbicides, electrochromism, solar energy conversion, molecular electronics and supramolecular chemistry. The Viologens is a comprehensive overview of the nature and physicochemical properties of the viologens and details the science behind the applications. Following a broad, discursive and self contained introduction to viologen chemistry, subsequent chapters develop the theory and present a detailed review of the most important properties and concepts in this field. A chapter on viologen synthesis is also included. This book is aimed at researchers in physical and organic chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and environmental engineering.
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Advanced Macromolecular and Supramolecular Materials and Processes

Molecular Recognition Study To show the utility of the bis-calix [4]arene hosts, we have carried out the binding studies between the bis-calix [4]arenes and viologen-type guest molecules." Viologens are well known as oxidation-reduction ...

Author: Kurt E. Geckeler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441984951

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

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The area of macromolecular and supramolecular science and engineering has gained substantial interest and importance during the last decade and many applications can be envisioned in the future. The rapid developments in this interdisciplinary area justify a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in the research of materials and processes that is given in this monograph. This monograph is based primarily on synthetic architectures and systems covered by the contents of selected plenary and invited lectures delivered at the 1st International Symposium on Macro- and Supramolecular Architectures and Materials (MAM-01): Biological and Synthetic Systems, which was held from 11-14 April 2001 on the international campus of the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (K-JIST) in Kwangju, South Korea. In addition, it contains several complementing contributions in this novel field of science dealing with synthetic architectures and represents a unique compilation of reviewed research accounts of the in-depth knowledge of macromolecular and supramolecular materials and processes. It comprises 22 pioneering chapters written by 64 renowned experts from 13 different countries.
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Physical Chemistry

Viologens The viologens are mentioned a couple of times in this chapter, and are formally salts of 4,4 -bipyridine. The only book dedicated to them is The Viologens: Physicochemical Properties, Synthesis and Applications of the Salts of ...

Author: Paul M. S. Monk

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 9780470358269

Category: Science

Page: 608

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Understanding Physical Chemistry is a gentle introduction to the principles and applications of physical chemistry. The book aims to introduce the concepts and theories in a structured manner through a wide range of carefully chosen examples and case studies drawn from everyday life. These real-life examples and applications are presented first, with any necessary chemical and mathematical theory discussed afterwards. This makes the book extremely accessible and directly relevant to the reader. Aimed at undergraduate students taking a first course in physical chemistry, this book offers an accessible applications/examples led approach to enhance understanding and encourage and inspire the reader to learn more about the subject. A comprehensive introduction to physical chemistry starting from first principles. Carefully structured into short, self-contained chapters. Introduces examples and applications first, followed by the necessary chemical theory.
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Glucose Sensing

Viologens themselves are quaternized 4,4'-bypyridinium compounds, the most well-known of which is methylviologen (MV2+). ... Viologens are characterized by their activity as good electron acceptors.13 Although methyl viologen (MV2+) is ...

Author: Chris D. Geddes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387330150

Category: Science

Page: 442

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An essential reference for any laboratory working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. The increasing importance of these techniques is typified in one emerging area by developing non-invasive and continuous approaches for physiological glucose monitoring. This volume incorporates analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews, specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet appealing to a wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence.
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Electrochromic Materials and Devices

Table 4.2 A list of Prussian blue with viologen solid–solid ECDs (thin-film type) reported in the literature. Viologena) Electrolyteb) Coloursc) Vcell (V) %ΔT (Td/Tb) or ΔA at λmax τd/τb (s) η(cm2 C−1) References MV Nafion® Y–G–B–C–P ...

Author: Roger J. Mortimer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527679874

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 672

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Electrochromic materials can change their properties under the influence of an electrical voltage or current. Different classes of materials show this behavior such as transition metal oxides, conjugated polymers, metal-coordinated complexes and organic molecules. As the color change is persistent, the electric field needs only to be applied to initiate the switching, allowing for applications such as low-energy consumption displays, light-adapting mirrors in the automobile industry and smart windows for which the amount of transmitted light and heat can be controlled. The first part of this book describes the different classes and processing techniques of electrochromic materials. The second part highlights nanostructured electrochromic materials and device fabrication, and the third part focuses on the applications such as smart windows, adaptive camouflage, biomimicry, wearable displays and fashion. The last part rounds off the book by device case studies and environmental impact issues.
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Atomic Scale Modelling of Electrochemical Systems

The comprehensive studies of Nichols and associates on viologen, Figure 2.17, illuminate both the potential and challenges of these powerful single-molecule approaches. 2.5.4.1 The viologens The viologens (Figure 2.17) have come to ...

Author: Marko M. Melander

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119605614

Category: Science

Page: 368

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Atomic-Scale Modelling of Electrochemical Systems A comprehensive overview of atomistic computational electrochemistry, discussing methods, implementation, and state-of-the-art applications in the field The first book to review state-of-the-art computational and theoretical methods for modelling, understanding, and predicting the properties of electrochemical interfaces. This book presents a detailed description of the current methods, their background, limitations, and use for addressing the electrochemical interface and reactions. It also highlights several applications in electrocatalysis and electrochemistry. Atomic-Scale Modelling of Electrochemical Systems discusses different ways of including the electrode potential in the computational setup and fixed potential calculations within the framework of grand canonical density functional theory. It examines classical and quantum mechanical models for the solid-liquid interface and formation of an electrochemical double-layer using molecular dynamics and/or continuum descriptions. A thermodynamic description of the interface and reactions taking place at the interface as a function of the electrode potential is provided, as are novel ways to describe rates of heterogeneous electron transfer, proton-coupled electron transfer, and other electrocatalytic reactions. The book also covers multiscale modelling, where atomic level information is used for predicting experimental observables to enable direct comparison with experiments, to rationalize experimental results, and to predict the following electrochemical performance. Uniquely explains how to understand, predict, and optimize the properties and reactivity of electrochemical interfaces starting from the atomic scale Uses an engaging “tutorial style” presentation, highlighting a solid physicochemical background, computational implementation, and applications for different methods, including merits and limitations Bridges the gap between experimental electrochemistry and computational atomistic modelling Written by a team of experts within the field of computational electrochemistry and the wider computational condensed matter community, this book serves as an introduction to the subject for readers entering the field of atom-level electrochemical modeling, while also serving as an invaluable reference for advanced practitioners already working in the field.
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Photochemistry

The new dyads [Ru(tpy)(Metpp)]” and [Ru(bpy)(Metpp)(CH3CN)]” (tpp = 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine bound in tridentate fashion, Me = methylated N) in which the methylated nitrogen functions as an electron acceptor as in a viologen, ...

Author: A Gilbert

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781847554796

Category: Science

Page: 440

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The breadth of scientific and technological interests in the general topic of photochemistry is truly enormous and includes, for example, such diverse areas as microelectronics, atmospheric chemistry, organic synthesis, non-conventional photoimaging, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, polymer technologies, and spectroscopy. This Specialist Periodical Report on Photochemistry aims to provide an annual review of photo-induced processes that have relevance to the above wide-ranging academic and commercial disciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology. In order to provide easy access to this vast and varied literature, each volume of Photochemistry comprises sections concerned with photophysical processes in condensed phases, organic aspects which are sub-divided by chromophore type, polymer photochemistry, and photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion. Volume 34 covers literature published from July 2001 to June 2002. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.
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Electrode Processes VII

2D PHASE TRANSITION OF VIOLOGENS ON HOPG ELECTRODE SURFACE Takamasa Sagara , Takuro Tada , Yuka Fujihara , Kosuke Miuchi Department of Applied Chemistry , Faculty of Engineering Nagasaki University Bunkyo 1-14 , Nagasaki 852-8521 ...

Author: Viola Birss

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105120999151

Category: Science

Page: 316

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Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Electrochromic Materials

Passage of 1.2 x 10-3 C cm - 2 charge gave 0.06 um thick films with comparable Prussian blue electrochemical response to the outer layer Nafion® - incorporated viologens . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.1 - Dialkyl - 4.4 -Bipyridilium ...

Author: Kuo-Chuan Ho

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566771749

Category: Electrochromic devices

Page: 416

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