Individuals make decisions but they do not do so in a social vacuum. The goods they buy are frequently status-symbols in a zero-sum game which some will win and some must lose. Their consumption of commodities is subject to the constraint that what one can do, all cannot. The pressure of coalitions and interest groups, the self- interest of politicians and bureaucrats may all work against a solution being found for some of the most urgent social and economic problems of our times. These problems form the centrepiece of the economic approach to social interaction that has been pioneered by Anthony Downs, Mancur Olson and Fred Hirsch. This book seeks to examine and evaluate their important theories of collective action.
It is with Olson's Logic of Collective Action that the three parts of this chapter are concerned. The first section, which deals with methodology, demonstrates that Olson, like Downs, proceeds deductively from the twin axioms of ...
Author: D. Reisman
Category: Business & Economics
The notion that groups form and act in ways that respond to objective, external costs and benefits has long been the key to accounting for social change processes driven by collective action. Yet this same notion seems to fall apart when we try to explain how collectivities emerge out of the choices of individuals. This book overcomes that dilemma by offering an analysis of collective action that, while rooted in individual decision making, also brings out the way in which objective costs and benefits can impede or foster social coordination. The resulting approach enables us to address the causes and consequences of collective action with the help of the tools of modern economic theory. To illustrate this, the book applies the tools it develops to the study of specific collective action problems such as clientelism, focusing on its connections with economic development and political redistribution; and wage bargaining, showing its economic determinants and its relevance for the political economy of the welfare state. "Medina's study is a great step forward in the analytics of collective action. He shows the inadequacies of currently standard models and shows that straightforward revisions reconcile rational-choice and structural viewpoints. It will influence all future work." -Kenneth Arrow, Stanford University "Olson, Schelling, and now Medina. A Unified Theory deepens our understanding of collective action and contributes to the foundations of our field. A major work." -Robert H. Bates, Harvard University "Medina thinks that the main problem of social action is not whether or not to cooperate but how to do it. To this end he has produced an imaginative approach to analyzing strategic coordination problems that produces plausible predictions in a range of circumstances." -John Ferejohn, Stanford University Luis Fernando Medina is Associate Professor in the Department of Politics at the University of Virginia.
It may teach us something we would not know from mere intuition , but we should be cautious if the theory does serious violence to it . Claim 2 ' Even if the previous claim is rejected , the layperson's theory of collective action is ...
Author: Luis Medina
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Category: Business & Economics
This book comprises empirical tests of the theoretical implications of collective action theory specifically with regard to mobilization. It is based on the author’s European Protest and Coercion Data, which won the Comparative Politics Section of American Political Science Association award for the best data set in 2007. The data is supplemented by historical investigations as well as other research. The volume is divided into six chapters. The introduction covers the theory of collective action in its many manifestations as well as the process of drawing out theoretical implications. The second chapter goes to the core of the mobilization issues, especially with regard to the role of leadership, which is inextricably linked to mobilization. The third chapter applies the concept of adaptation to the development of more productive tactics that promote mobilization in support of a public good and minimize the possibility of repression. In chapter four, five spatial hypotheses based on rationality and formal theories are developed and the role of time in protests is addressed. The fifth chapter focuses on the fundamental problems of terror with evidence from the Basque region of Spain and France from Ireland against the Provisional Irish Republican Army. The final chapter surveys the empirical evidence and summarizes the support of collective action theory. Testing collective action theory implications with empirical evidence will appeal to political scientists, sociologists, economists and researchers concerned with mobilization.
For several years now, disaggregated methods (i.e., single-case comparisons) have been used to test theories ... Think of interest group theory before Olson's The Logic of Collective Action, of electoral theory before Cox's (Cox 1997) ...
Author: Ronald A. Francisco
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Political Science
David Millers expanded third edition makes it the definitive source on collective behavior and collective action. Up-to-date and meticulously researched, this popular volume continues to provide a systematic overview of theory and research. Each topic is meaningfully linked to the appropriate theories of collective behavior (mass hysteria, emergent-norm, and value-added perspectives) and collective action (social-behavioral interactionist, resource mobilization, and value-added perspectives). Rumor, mass hysteria, fads and fashion, UFOs, sports, migrations, disasters, riots, protest, and social movements are among the topics presented in a unique side-by-side presentation of the two disciplines. In an engaging, accessible style, Miller offers detailed discussion of classic sociological studies interspersed with intriguing modern-day examples that students will enjoy reading. His thorough topical treatment effectively reduces the need for outside readings.
Collective action theories represent a substantial departure for the collective behavior tradition. Theories of collective action make no sharp and fundamental distinction between collective action and other forms of social behavior.
Author: David L. Miller
Publisher: Waveland Press
Category: Social Science
This book develops a theory of climate cooperation designed for concerted action, which emphasises the role and function of collectives in achieving shared climate goals. In debates on climate change action, research focuses on three major goals: on mitigation, on adaptation and on transformation. Even though these goals are accepted, concerted action is still difficult to realize. Climate Justice and Collective Action provides an analysis of why this is the case and develops a theory of climate cooperation designed to overcome the existing roadblocks. Angela Kallhoff starts with a thorough analysis of failures of collective action in the context of climate change action. Taking inspiration from theories of water cooperation, she then establishes a theory of joint action that reframes climate goals as shared goals and highlights the importance of adhering to principles of fairness. This also includes an exploration of the normative claims working in the background of climate cooperation. Finally, Kallhoff puts forward proposals for a fair allocation of duties to cooperate with respect to climate goals. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of climate action, climate justice, environmental sociology and environmental philosophy and ethics more broadly.
To introduce the background of this theoretical approach, it is helpful to start with a different though closely related family of theories. In addressing collective action problems related to public goods, public choice theory provides ...
Author: Angela Kallhoff
Political protest and social movements are ubiquitous phenomena. This book focuses on the current theoretical approaches that aim at explaining them: the theory of collective action, the resource mobilization perspective, political opportunity structure theory, the identity approach, the framing perspective, and the dynamics of contention approach. The book has three objectives: (1) Many basic concepts like political opportunities or identity are not clearly defined. It is further often a matter of interpretation what factors are supposed to affect which phenomena. The first aim is therefore to provide a detailed introduction to and a clear restatement of the theories. Only then is it possible to assess and improve them. (2) For each theory the major strengths and weaknesses are discussed, and various modifications and extensions are suggested. (3) Building on these analyses, it is shown how the theories can be integrated into a single theoretical paradigm: the structural-cognitive model.
Since the theme of this book is mobilization and collective action, we will not discuss this type of work. 9. Political opportunities and collective action: a synthesis Although POS theory refers to the macro level, its basic idea is ...
Author: Karl-Dieter Opp
Category: Political Science
Collective Action 2.0 explores the issues related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in detail, providing a balanced insight into how ICTs leverage and interact with collective action, which will have an impact on the current discourse. Recent events in different authoritarian regimes, such as Iran and Egypt, have drawn global attention to a developing phenomenon in collective action: People tend to organize through different social media platforms for political protest and resistance. This phenomenon describes a change in social structure and behavior tied to ICT. Social media platforms have been used to leverage collective action, which has in some cases arguably lead, to political revolution. The phenomenon also indicates that the way information is organized affects the organization of social structures with which it interoperates. The phenomenon also has another side, which is the use of social media for activist suppression, state and corporate surveillance, commodifi cation of social processes, demobilization, or for the mobilization of collective action toward undesirable ends. Analyzes social media and collective action in an in-depth and balanced manner Presents an account of avoiding technological determinism, utopianism, and fundamentalism Considers the underlying theory behind quick-paced social media Takes an interdisciplinary approach that will resonate with all those interested in social media and collective action, regardless of fi eld specialism
The Impact of Social Media on Collective Action Shaked Spier ... as Perugorría and Tejerina (2013), Benski and Langman (2013), also stress the importance of emotions, an aspect that gains little attention in social movement theories.
Author: Shaked Spier
Publisher: Chandos Publishing
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements is a compilation of original, state-of-the-art essays by internationally recognized scholars on an array of topics in the field of social movement studies. Contains original, state-of-the-art essays by internationally recognized scholars Covers a wide array of topics in the field of social movement studies Features a valuable introduction by the editors which maps the field, and helps situate the study of social movements within other disciplines Includes coverage of historical, political, and cultural contexts; leadership; organizational dynamics; social networks and participation; consequences and outcomes; and case studies of major social movements Offers the most comprehensive discussion of social movements available
Theories. of. Collective. Action. Steven. M. Buechler. Since the 1970s, social movement theory has changed dramatically. One reason is that ''the study of social movements is volatile because the phenomena under consideration change so ...
Author: David A. Snow
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intentionality provides a wide-ranging survey of topics in a rapidly expanding area of interdisciplinary research. It consists of 36 chapters, written exclusively for this volume, by an international team of experts. What is distinctive about the study of collective intentionality within the broader study of social interactions and structures is its focus on the conceptual and psychological features of joint or shared actions and attitudes, and their implications for the nature of social groups and their functioning. This Handbook fully captures this distinctive nature of the field and how it subsumes the study of collective action, responsibility, reasoning, thought, intention, emotion, phenomenology, decision-making, knowledge, trust, rationality, cooperation, competition, and related issues, as well as how these underpin social practices, organizations, conventions, institutions and social ontology. Like the field, the Handbook is interdisciplinary, drawing on research in philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, legal theory, anthropology, sociology, computer science, psychology, economics, and political science. Finally, the Handbook promotes several specific goals: (1) it provides an important resource for students and researchers interested in collective intentionality; (2) it integrates work across disciplines and areas of research as it helps to define the shape and scope of an emerging area of research; (3) it advances the study of collective intentionality.
The reason for focusing on basic actions is that these acts help answer the “first problem in action theory”: what distinguishes actions from non-actional events (Enç 2003)? If we WRR everything from individual action theory, ...
Author: Marija Jankovic
Public choice has been one of the most important developments in the social sciences in the last twenty years. However there are many people who are frustrated by the uncritical importing of ideas from economics into political science. Public Choice uses both empirical evidence and theoretical analysis to argue that the economic theory of politics is limited in scope and fertility. In order to arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of political life, political scientists must learn from both economists and sociologists.
SELECTIVE INCENTIVES An early assessment of Olson's theory of collective action can be found in Brian Barry's Sociologists , Economists and Democracy ( 1970/1978 ) . While , in the main , sympathetic , Barry nevertheless raises some ...
Author: Lars (Stockholm University Udehn, Sweden)
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics