Victim Vulnerability

Vulnerability is viewed as different types of phenomena by different theorists. Depending on the viewpoint, it can be presented as a process, a set of traits, a disorder, or a set of behaviors. Victims are most vulnerable when in ...

Author: Eric Anton Kreuter

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1600212824

Category: Psychology

Page: 159

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An examination of the psychological literature on victimisation shows disproportionately that that we know more about the predator than we do the victim. Moreover, almost all the literature on the victim is presented from either a reductionistic or cognitive-behavioural point of view. This book examines the psychology of a victim of repeated criminal acts from the existential-humanistic perspective. The method used is the single case study. The subject, currently age 51, a pilot, was the victim of identity theft, extortion, and duress. These crimes, some of which are treated under federal law as violent by their nature or effect, resulted in a large, unrecoverable financial loss, suspension of the pilot's medical certification required to operate aircraft, abrupt termination of his chosen career, a continuing governmental record of being delusional despite overwhelming proof to the contrary, lasting emotional and physical distress, as well as other consequences. Meanwhile, the predator has harmed dozens of individuals, forming a diverse cohort. A life history of the subject is presented as a context for the specific chronology of events defining his victimisation, which is followed by an existential interpretation. Interviews and archival data, including written and audio forms of documentation, have been incorporated into the study. Seven criteria were selected from existential-humanistic psychology that have been applied in the exploration of the behaviour and personality of the victim: (1) the interior life-world of the person; (2) self-actualisation needs vs. adjustment to social norms; (3) meaning through suffering; (4) being in the face of non-being; (5) attitudes toward death and annihilation; (6) dreams, visions, and mythic experience; and (7) existential use of the void. The study found characteristics of the psyche of a particular victim that may have made him vulnerable. These characteristics include: being overly trusting; being under the influence of a hero-rescuer archetype; and being overly reliant on instruments due to training as a pilot. Mainstream psychology has ignored this dimension, which is needed to understand the total person.
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Guideline Sentencing

1993 ) ( affirmed : rejecting argument that court “ should not have applied the vulnerable victim adjustment because at the ... In any event , a court should make an “ analysis of the victim's personal or individual vulnerability to the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: NYPL:33433031744737

Category: Appellate procedure

Page:

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Perspectives on Crime Victims

Victim vulnerability Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of certain groups of people to victimization, through no fault of their own, based on demographic or other characteristics. Are aged persons, for example, more susceptible ...

Author: Burt Galaway

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105043670293

Category: Victimes d'actes criminels

Page: 435

View: 110

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Who is the Next Victim

Author: Sebastian Lăzăroiu

Publisher: International Org. for Migration

ISBN: IND:30000107348496

Category: Emigration and immigration

Page: 72

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Initial and Repeated Burglary Victimisation

[Truncated abstract] This thesis examines the phenomenon of repeat burglary and its significance for crime prevention, criminology and victimology.

Author: Frank Morgan

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:903871937

Category: Burglary

Page: 245

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[Truncated abstract] This thesis examines the phenomenon of repeat burglary and its significance for crime prevention, criminology and victimology. The research program for this thesis was inspired some time ago by the Kirkholt burglary prevention project in the United Kingdom. The reduction of repeat victimisation quickly came to be seen as the key to Kirkholt s success and by the late twentieth century victim-based crime prevention projects had been implemented in many parts of the world. However, even though these projects have achieved notable success there is still intense debate about why one-time victims are more likely than others to become future victims. This thesis aims to increase understanding of repeat burglary and other forms of repeat victimisation by contributing to its key concepts and its methods of analysis, and by applying these insights in Australian settings. In pursuing this endeavour the thesis links the problems of repeat victimisation with problems in other areas of criminology and social science. In particular the issue of whether prior victimisation is a cause of future victimisation or merely a marker of pre-existing risk has analogs in the areas of offending, of employment, in international disputes, and in many others. Despite this, there has been limited transfer of methods and concepts between repeat victim researchers and researchers in other areas. The thesis examines repeat burglary as a substantive area of research, but its approaches to method, concepts and data are relevant to all repeat victimisation research. ... It draws together criminological theory, conceptual analysis, and a pioneering application of survival analysis to pursue the mechanisms underlying repeat burglary in a Perth suburb. In doing so it illuminates issues about the relative power of state dependence and heterogeneity explanations of repeat burglary and arrives at substantive results that in some aspects differ from findings in the United Kingdom. This section also argues that the concept of state dependence commonly adopted is iv unnecessarily constraining and that a broader concept can explain some potentially conflicting findings of repeat victimisation research. Section 3 is an evaluation of a victim-focused burglary prevention initiative in Adelaide one of two nationally supported pilot projects. Section 4 examines carefully the claimed advantages of victim-focused crime prevention for distributing burglary prevention resources in an efficient and equitable way. It examines evidence concerning the differential capacity and willingness of victims to take effective preventive action and the need for both individual and collective support for effective preventive initiatives. Section 5 concludes the thesis by arguing first that the merging of victim support and crime prevention is not as simple as is sometimes claimed. It also argues that crime prevention needs to take into account more than criminological theory if it is to be effective. An important argument of the conclusion is that criminological imagination has been overly limited in comprehending repeat victimisation, and it explores the ways in which criminological research still struggles to appreciate the importance of the victim for theory and crime prevention. It also argues that the implications of repeat victimisation have yet to be fully developed and accepted. Fuller details of the thesis structure are given at the end of the introduction.
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Elder Crimes Elder Justice

Studies have demonstrated that older women, in certain ways, are inherently more vulnerable to crime than younger women. ... Predators assess a victim's vulnerability and accessibility in the course of their daily activities.

Author: David R. Snyder

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 9781284023237

Category: Law

Page: 272

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The proportion of the aged in society today is greater than ever before and growing faster than any other segment of the population. Law enforcement officers are increasingly called upon to manage the needs of the older population they serve. Elder Crimes, Elder Justice addresses all of the special needs of older people and gives the law enforcement officer the confidence that is needed to understand the aging process, communicate effectively with older people, understand the fears of older people, develop effective crime prevention strategies, and respond effectively to the older perpetrator. This book offers insights into the special considerations of the growing elderly population and teaches how to handle day-to-day interactions astutely and empathetically, resulting in a positive outcome for the law enforcement official, for the older person, and for the community. Key Features: -Topics include crime and the older adu
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Guidelines Manual

Vulnerable Victim If the defendant knew or should have known that the victim of the offense was unusually vulnerable due to age , physical or mental condition , or that the victim was particularly susceptible to the criminal conduct ...

Author: United States Sentencing Commission

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951P00890358Y

Category: Sentences (Criminal procedure)

Page:

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Working with Violence

... of the victim to foster the victim's identification with the psychopath, thus increasing the victim's vulnerability to ... who may carefully select their victims by recognising subtle narcissistic vulnerabilities of the victim via ...

Author: Jessica Yakeley

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9780230364479

Category: Medical

Page: 208

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It has become an urgent priority to tackle the problem of violence. But in an age preoccupied with public protection and risk, violent behaviour is more likely to provoke a punitive response than any attempt to understand and address its root causes. Drawing on the field of psychoanalysis and the expanding discipline of forensic psychotherapy, this book offers a strong conceptual framework for understanding the motivations and dynamics that underlie violent behaviour in adults. Yakeley offers new insights into the therapeutic containment of aggression: • exploring violence in relation to specific areas including mental illness and personality, sexuality, gender, and racism • describing in detail the assessment and treatment of violent patients, whether one to one, in groups or at an institutional level • looking closely at work in different forensic settings as well as the interface between the mental health and criminal justice systems • illustrating observations and techniques with vivid case examples. Written in a clear and approachable style, with a helpful glossary of psychoanalytic and technical terms, Working with Violence is essential reading for those working, or considering working, in counselling, social work and health care settings where they come into therapeutic contact with violent individuals.
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Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights

... the Council of Europe refers to physical vulnerability as “the vulnerability of a pregnant, defenceless, ill, physically or mentally handicapped or dependent victim.”275 The ECHR and the ECtHR use a particular form of vulnerability ...

Author: Johanna Bond

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192639547

Category: Law

Page: 272

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Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights argues for an expansive definition of human rights, one that encompasses the harm caused by multiple, intersecting forms of subordination. Intersectionality theory posits that aspects of identity, such as race and gender, are mutually constitutive and intersect to create unique experiences of discrimination and subordination. Perpetrators of sexual violence in armed conflict, of example, often target women based on both gender and ethnicity. Human rights remedies that fail to capture the intersectional nature of human rights violations do not offer comprehensive redress to victims. This title explores the influence of intersectionality theory on human rights in the modern era and traces the evolution of intersectionality as a theoretical framework in the United States and around the world. It draws upon feminist theory and human rights jurisprudence to argue that scholars and activists have under-utilized intersectionality theory in the global discourse of human rights. As the central intergovernmental organization charged with the protection of human rights, the United Nations has been slow to embrace the insights gained from intersectionality theory. This work argues that the United Nations and other human rights organizations must more actively embrace intersectionality as an analytical framework in order to fully address the complexity of human rights violations around the world.
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United States Code Annotated

Natural disaster victims , fraud offenses 78 Newlyweds , vulnerability of victim 19 Notice 38 Patients , fraud offenses 79 Physical condition , fraud offenses 71 Physical condition , target of criminal activity , fraud offenses 65 ...

Author: United States

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000061259614

Category:

Page:

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