Victim Vulnerability

Vulnerability is viewed as different types of phenomena by different theorists . Depending on the viewpoint , it can be presented as a process , a set of traits , a disorder , or a set of behaviors . Victims are most vulnerable when in ...

Author: Eric Anton Kreuter

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1600212824

Category: Psychology

Page: 159

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An examination of the psychological literature on victimisation shows disproportionately that that we know more about the predator than we do the victim. Moreover, almost all the literature on the victim is presented from either a reductionistic or cognitive-behavioural point of view. This book examines the psychology of a victim of repeated criminal acts from the existential-humanistic perspective. The method used is the single case study. The subject, currently age 51, a pilot, was the victim of identity theft, extortion, and duress. These crimes, some of which are treated under federal law as violent by their nature or effect, resulted in a large, unrecoverable financial loss, suspension of the pilot's medical certification required to operate aircraft, abrupt termination of his chosen career, a continuing governmental record of being delusional despite overwhelming proof to the contrary, lasting emotional and physical distress, as well as other consequences. Meanwhile, the predator has harmed dozens of individuals, forming a diverse cohort. A life history of the subject is presented as a context for the specific chronology of events defining his victimisation, which is followed by an existential interpretation. Interviews and archival data, including written and audio forms of documentation, have been incorporated into the study. Seven criteria were selected from existential-humanistic psychology that have been applied in the exploration of the behaviour and personality of the victim: (1) the interior life-world of the person; (2) self-actualisation needs vs. adjustment to social norms; (3) meaning through suffering; (4) being in the face of non-being; (5) attitudes toward death and annihilation; (6) dreams, visions, and mythic experience; and (7) existential use of the void. The study found characteristics of the psyche of a particular victim that may have made him vulnerable. These characteristics include: being overly trusting; being under the influence of a hero-rescuer archetype; and being overly reliant on instruments due to training as a pilot. Mainstream psychology has ignored this dimension, which is needed to understand the total person.
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Guideline Sentencing

1993 ) ( affirmed : rejecting argument that court “ should not have applied the vulnerable victim adjustment because at the ... In any event , a court should make an “ analysis of the victim's personal or individual vulnerability to the ...

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ISBN: NYPL:33433031744737

Category: Appellate procedure

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Perspectives on Crime Victims

Victim vulnerability Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of certain groups of people to victimization, through no fault of their own, based on demographic or other characteristics. Are aged persons, for example, more susceptible ...

Author: Burt Galaway

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105043670293

Category: Victimes d'actes criminels

Page: 435

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Elder Crimes Elder Justice

Studies have demonstrated that older women, in certain ways, are inherently more vulnerable to crime than younger women. ... Predators assess a victim's vulnerability and accessibility in the course of their daily activities.

Author: David R. Snyder

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 9781284023237

Category: Law

Page: 272

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The proportion of the aged in society today is greater than ever before and growing faster than any other segment of the population. Law enforcement officers are increasingly called upon to manage the needs of the older population they serve. Elder Crimes, Elder Justice addresses all of the special needs of older people and gives the law enforcement officer the confidence that is needed to understand the aging process, communicate effectively with older people, understand the fears of older people, develop effective crime prevention strategies, and respond effectively to the older perpetrator. This book offers insights into the special considerations of the growing elderly population and teaches how to handle day-to-day interactions astutely and empathetically, resulting in a positive outcome for the law enforcement official, for the older person, and for the community. Key Features: -Topics include crime and the older adu
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Guidelines Manual

Vulnerable Victim If the defendant knew or should have known that the victim of the offense was unusually vulnerable due to age , physical or mental condition , or that the victim was particularly susceptible to the criminal conduct ...

Author: United States Sentencing Commission

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951P00890358Y

Category: Sentences (Criminal procedure)

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Social Work for Lazy Radicals

McLaughlin (2012) explores the victim identity and vulnerability narrative that many identity groups adopt. He explains that describing oneself as a 'survivor' means that the person is forever in a position of reference to the past ...

Author: Jane Fenton

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781352002461

Category: Social Science

Page: 190

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Be proud to be a lazy radical! This textbook makes the case for a radical approach to social work that can be embraced by everyone. It's an approach based on real empathy and an understanding of oppression, of managerialism, of the moral heart of social work, of humanism and of the effects of neoliberal hegemony. Jane Fenton provides a model of radical practice for students and social workers who are committed to 'doing the right thing', and who want to develop their own framework for practice. This book will appeal to students who are activists, but want to frame their individual-level practice in a meaningful way, and to those who are non-activist and non-political but simply want to be good social workers. It will give a political and moral understanding of social work practice and lead to confident, value-based and enjoyable social work.
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Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights

... the Council of Europe refers to physical vulnerability as “the vulnerability of a pregnant, defenceless, ill, physically or mentally handicapped or dependent victim.”275 The ECHR and the ECtHR use a particular form of vulnerability ...

Author: Johanna Bond

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192639547

Category: Law

Page: 272

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Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights argues for an expansive definition of human rights, one that encompasses the harm caused by multiple, intersecting forms of subordination. Intersectionality theory posits that aspects of identity, such as race and gender, are mutually constitutive and intersect to create unique experiences of discrimination and subordination. Perpetrators of sexual violence in armed conflict, of example, often target women based on both gender and ethnicity. Human rights remedies that fail to capture the intersectional nature of human rights violations do not offer comprehensive redress to victims. This title explores the influence of intersectionality theory on human rights in the modern era and traces the evolution of intersectionality as a theoretical framework in the United States and around the world. It draws upon feminist theory and human rights jurisprudence to argue that scholars and activists have under-utilized intersectionality theory in the global discourse of human rights. As the central intergovernmental organization charged with the protection of human rights, the United Nations has been slow to embrace the insights gained from intersectionality theory. This work argues that the United Nations and other human rights organizations must more actively embrace intersectionality as an analytical framework in order to fully address the complexity of human rights violations around the world.
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Resilience and Vulnerability

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE IMPACT OF VIOLENCE Proximity and Relationship to the Victim or Perpetrator Several aspects of violence itself can affect a youth's reaction to it , including proximity and relation to it .

Author: Dante Cicchetti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521001617

Category: Medical

Page: 610

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Integrated in this book are contributions from leading scientists who have each studied children's adjustment across risks common in contemporary society. Chapters in the first half of the book focus on risks emanating from the family; chapters in the second half focus on risks stemming from the wider community. All contributors have explicitly addressed a common set of core themes, including the criteria they used to judge 'resilience' within particular risk settings, the major factors that predict resilience in these settings; the limits to resilience (vulnerabilities coexisting with manifest success); and directions for interventions. In the concluding chapter, the editor integrates evidence presented through all preceding chapters to distill (a) substantive considerations for future research, and (b) salient directions for interventions and social policies, based on accumulated research knowledge.
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Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

All rapists are predicted to be attuned to a potential victim's vulnerability, but an opportunistic rapist is especially so. The universality of laws and societal norms prohibiting rape (wife rape being a special exception; ...

Author: Joshua Duntley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019971715X

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

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The field of forensic psychology explores the intersection of psychology and the law. The purpose of this book is to examine topics in the field using the powerful, multidisciplinary, conceptually integrated approach that the natural sciences have embraced for decades with great success. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the meta-theoretical framework that unifies the field of biology. It unites research and understanding of the development, control, and organization of behavior. The study of humans, which includes all of the social sciences, is part of the field of biology. Darwin's theory provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that can unify and energize forensic psychology, just as it has the biological sciences. Evolutionary processes undoubtedly shaped physiological characteristics to help solve problems of survival and reproduction. The lungs, for example, with their vast surface area and moist membranes are marvelous adaptions for extracting oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Natural selection is the only known process capable of shaping complex functional mechanisms. Just as it shaped physiological adaptations with specific problem-solving functions, it also shaped our thoughts and emotions to guide behaviors toward solving recurrent problems of survival and reproduction. With this logic, we can use knowledge of ancestral problems to guide our understanding of how the mind works. Evolutionary Forensic Psychology is a necessary step toward a unified and complete understanding of psychology and the law. It recognizes that crimes such as murder, non-lethal violence, rape, and theft are manifestations of evolutionarily recurrent selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for resources. Each of the chapters that comprise this volume has been selected to provide the first unified examination of important research contributions and future directions of Evolutionary Forensic Psychology.
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Federal Sentencing Law and Practice

extent to which the victim's characteristics made that victim vulnerable or susceptible to the offense beyond the vulnerability or susceptibility of a typical victim of that offense.80 The Second Circuit has remanded for the failure of ...

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ISBN: STANFORD:36105063638709

Category: Sentences (Criminal procedure)

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