Voting Procedures under Uncertainty

In democratic systems the electoral institutions provide ways of peaceful adjustment to changes in popular opinions. This book is about uncertainty as it pertains to electoral institutions.

Author: Hannu Nurmi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540248309

Category: Political Science

Page: 156

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We live in an uncertain world, is a truism most of us hear more often than we would like. What one usually means to say by this is that we do not know what will happen in the future. Since changes, even major ones, have occurred in the past, it is possible that they will occur again in the future. In politics institutions are ways of coping with continuity and change. In democratic systems the electoral institutions provide ways of peaceful adjustment to changes in popular opinions. This book is about uncertainty as it pertains to electoral institutions. We shall deal with the ways in which analytic models are capable of taking into account voter uncertainty, ignorance and incompetence. We shall also discuss how uncertainty pertains to electoral outcomes. Given voter opinions, there is often a wide variation in the possible electoral outcomes. This could be called procedure-dependence of outcomes. Its existence shows that uncertainty is not something that can characterize only future events. It can pertain to past ones as well. This work is part of the Democracy and Constitution Project of Center for Business and Policy Studies (SNS). The idea of writing a book on the performance of voting procedures under uncertain cir cumstances came up in my correspondence with Dr. Per Molander of SNS a few years ago.
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Decision Making under Uncertainty

Quite often, faced with complex uncertain prospects, individuals find it very difficult to construct and compare the cumulative distributions. ... One of the simplest voting procedures suggested is due to Jean-Charles Borda (1781).

Author: Tapan Biswas

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781349258178

Category: Decision making

Page: 215

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At the core of microeconomic theory lie the economics of uncertainty and the economics of games and decisions. This text for undergraduates and specialists in mathematical economics links game theory with decision-making under uncertainty.
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Voting Procedures for Electing a Single Candidate

Proving Their (In)Vulnerability to Various Voting Paradoxes Dan S. Felsenthal, Hannu Nurmi. Answers to Exercises Problem 1.1 The answer to the ... Voting procedures under uncertainty. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.: Springer Verlag.

Author: Dan S. Felsenthal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319740331

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 134

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This book deals with 18 voting procedures used or proposed for use in elections resulting in the choice of a single winner. These procedures are evaluated in terms of their ability to avoid paradoxical outcomes. Together with a companion volume by the same authors, Monotonicity Failures Afflicting Procedures for Electing a Single Candidate, published by Springer in 2017, this book aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the most important advantages and disadvantages of procedures thereby assisting decision makers in the choice of a voting procedure that would best suit their purposes.
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Systems Procedures and Voting Rules in Context

A Primer for Voting Rule Selection Adiel Teixeira de Almeida, Danielle Costa Morais, Hannu Nurmi ... The electoral systems of Nicholas of Cusa in the Catholic Concordance and beyond. ... Voting procedures under uncertainty.

Author: Adiel Teixeira de Almeida

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030309558

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 218

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This book deals with the choice of methods to be applied in the decision processes within organizations. It discusses the use of voting procedures for group decision in business organizations, focusing on decision-making contexts. Within this book the reader explores the relevant part of the decision-making process consisting of choosing the voting procedures and recognizing the drawbacks of that procedure. This book includes a unique feature of providing a framework for choosing the voting procedure that is the most appropriate for a particular business decision process. The book is useful for a broad researcher audience dealing with the group decision making processes within business organizations and for practitioners and students working in the group decision and negotiation field.
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Methodology and Concepts

“Investment in human capital and social self protection under uncertainty. ... “Optimal decision rules in uncertain dichotomous choice situations. ... “Optimal voting procedures for profit maximizing firms.” Public Choice 51(2): 191–208 ...

Author: Francesco Parisi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199684267

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 496

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Covering over one-hundred topics on issues ranging from Law and Neuroeconomics to European Union Law and Economics to Feminist Theory and Law and Economics, The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics is the definitive work in the field of law and economics. The book gathers together scholars and experts in law and economics to create the most inclusive and current work on law and economics. Edited by Francisco Parisi, the Handbook looks at the origins of the field of law and economics, tracks its progression and increased importance to both law and economics, and looks to the future of the field and its continued development by examining a cornucopia of fields touched by work in law and economics. The uniqueness of its breadth, depth, and convenience make the volume essential to scholars, students, and contributors in the field of law and economics.
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Scalable Uncertainty Management

We also provided an iterative procedure for top-k ranking and compared our results with full elicitation procedures. Possible directions for future research include: dealing with other voting rules in multi-attribute domains, ...

Author: Steven Schockaert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319458564

Category: Computers

Page: 361

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Scalable Uncertainty Management, SUM 2016, held in Nice, France, in September 2016. The 18 regular papers and 5 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. Papers are solicited in all areas of managing and reasoning with substantial and complex kinds of uncertain, incomplete or inconsistent information. These include (but are not restricted to) applications in decision support systems, risk analysis, machine learning, belief networks, logics of uncertainty, belief revision and update, argumentation, negotiation technologies, semantic web applications, search engines, ontology systems, information fusion, information retrieval, natural language processing, information extraction, image recognition, vision systems, data and text mining, and the consideration of issues such as provenance, trust, heterogeneity, and complexity of data and knowledge.
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Electoral Systems

Paradoxes, Assumptions, and Procedures Dan S. Felsenthal, Moshé Machover. Fishburn, P. (1971). ... Condorcet's paradox and the Condorcet efficiency of voting rules. Mathematica Japonica, 45 ... Voting procedures under uncertainty.

Author: Dan S. Felsenthal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642204418

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

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Both theoretical and empirical aspects of single- and multi-winner voting procedures are presented in this collection of papers. Starting from a discussion of the underlying principles of democratic representation, the volume includes a description of a great variety of voting procedures. It lists and illustrates their susceptibility to the main voting paradoxes, assesses (under various models of voters' preferences) the probability of paradoxical outcomes, and discusses the relevance of the theoretical results to the choice of voting system.
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In Situ and Laboratory Experiments on Electoral Law Reform

Experimenting with French election rules: Initial results. French Politics 5(1):106–117. ... The Theoretical Limits of Maximum Distortion: Some Analytic Expressions for Electoral Systems. ... Voting Procedures under uncertainty.

Author: Bernard Dolez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441975393

Category: Political Science

Page: 174

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In the modern era, representation is the hallmark of democracy, and electoral rules structure how representation works and how effectively governments perform. Moreover, of the key structural variables in constitutional design, it is the choice of electoral system that is usually the most open to change. There are three distinctive approaches to electoral system research. One, associated largely with economics, involves the study of electoral system effects through the deductive method, using mathematical tools to derive theorems about the properties of voting methods and behaviors. A second, associated largely with political science, has a primarily empirical focus, and looks in depth at how electoral rules impact on political outcomes, through large cross-sectional or case studies. A third, and more recent tradition, inspired largely by work in experimental economics, involves experimentation, either in the form of controlled laboratory experiments or in the form of in situ field studies. This volume employs the third approach to report on experiments that look at alternatives to the present two round (majority runoff) system used for the election of French presidents. This system is of considerable importance not just because of its use in France but also because of its wide adoption in presidential elections in new democracies, such as Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. The editors have assembled the top experimental economists and political scientists specializing in French politics to provide in-depth analysis of the double ballot electoral system, and, more broadly, of the effect of electoral rules on the number of candidates, voter strategies, and ideological choice. Ultimately, the editors and contributors argue that experimental methods have great potential to inform our understanding of institutional mechanisms in the context of voting behavior.
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Mathematics and Democracy

Designing Better Voting and Fair-Division Procedures Steven J. Brams. Moulin, Hervé (1979). ... “Voting on the Propositions: Ballot Pattern and Historical Trends in California. ... Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Steven J. Brams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400835591

Category: Science

Page: 392

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Voters today often desert a preferred candidate for a more viable second choice to avoid wasting their vote. Likewise, parties to a dispute often find themselves unable to agree on a fair division of contested goods. In Mathematics and Democracy, Steven Brams, a leading authority in the use of mathematics to design decision-making processes, shows how social-choice and game theory could make political and social institutions more democratic. Using mathematical analysis, he develops rigorous new procedures that enable voters to better express themselves and that allow disputants to divide goods more fairly. One of the procedures that Brams proposes is "approval voting," which allows voters to vote for as many candidates as they like or consider acceptable. There is no ranking, and the candidate with the most votes wins. The voter no longer has to consider whether a vote for a preferred but less popular candidate might be wasted. In the same vein, Brams puts forward new, more equitable procedures for resolving disputes over divisible and indivisible goods.
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The Vanishing Voter

From the award-winning author of Out of Order—named the best political science book of the last decade by the American Political Science Association—comes this landmark book about why Americans don’t vote.

Author: Thomas E. Patterson

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780307548672

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

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From the award-winning author of Out of Order—named the best political science book of the last decade by the American Political Science Association—comes this landmark book about why Americans don’t vote. Based on more than 80,000 interviews, The Vanishing Voter investigates why—despite a better educated citizenry, the end of racial barriers to voting, and simplified voter registration procedures—the percentage of voters has steadily decreased to the point that the United States now has nearly the lowest voting rate in the world. Patterson cites the blurring of differences between the political parties, the news media’s negative bias, and flaws in the election system to explain this disturbing trend while suggesting specific reforms intended to bring Americans back to the polls. Astute, far-reaching, and impeccably researched, The Vanishing Voter engages the very meaning of our relationship to our government.
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Multicriteria and Multiagent Decision Making with Applications to Economics and Social Sciences

Kacprzyk, J., Zadro ̇zny, S.: Dealing with imprecise knowledge on preferences and majority in group decision making: towards a unified characterization of ... Springer, Heidelberg (1999) Nurmi, H.: Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Aldo G. S. Ventre

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642356353

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 315

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The book provides a comprehensive and timely report on the topic of decision making and decision analysis in economics and the social sciences. The various contributions included in the book, selected using a peer review process, present important studies and research conducted in various countries around the globe. The majority of these studies are concerned with the analysis, modeling and formalization of the behavior of groups or committees that are in charge of making decisions of social and economic importance. Decisions in these contexts have to meet precise coherence standards and achieve a significant degree of sharing, consensus and acceptance, even in uncertain and fuzzy environments. This necessitates the confluence of several research fields, such as foundations of social choice and decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. A large spectrum of problems that may be encountered during decision making and decision analysis in the areas of economics and the social sciences, together with a broad range of tools and techniques that may be used to solve those problems, are presented in detail in this book, making it an ideal reference work for all those interested in analyzing and implementing mathematical tools for application to relevant issues involving the economy and society.
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e Democracy

Online at: http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/653/1/thecaseforutilita rianvoting.pdf Keeney, R. 1976. ... Almost all social choice rules are highly manipulable, but a few aren't. ... Voting Procedures Under Uncertainty.

Author: David Rios Insua

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048190452

Category: Mathematics

Page: 364

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Internet is starting to permeate politics much as it has previously revolutionised education, business or the arts. Thus, there is a growing interest in areas of e-government and, more recently, e-democracy. However, most attempts in this field have just envisioned standard political approaches facilitated by technology, like e-voting or e-debating. Alternatively, we could devise a more transforming strategy based on deploying web based group decision support tools and promote their use for public policy decision making. This book delineates how this approach could be implemented. It addresses foundations, basic methodologies, potential implementation and applications, together with a thorough discussion of the many challenging issues. This innovative text will be of interest to students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of e-government, e-democracy and e-participation and research in decision analysis, negotiation analysis and group decision support.
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Outlooks and Insights on Group Decision and Negotiation

15th International Conference, GDN 2015, Warsaw, Poland, June 22-26, 2015, Proceedings Bogumił Kamiński, Gregory E. Kersten, ... D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (1987) Nurmi, H.: Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Bogumił Kamiński

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319195155

Category: Computers

Page: 417

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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Group Decision and Negotiation, GDN 2015, held in Warsaw, Poland, in June 2015. The GDN meetings aim to bring together researchers and practitioners from a wide spectrum of fields, including economics, management, computer science, engineering, and decision science. From a total of 119 submissions, 32 papers were accepted for publication in this volume. The papers are organized into topical sections on group problem structuring and negotiation, negotiation and group processes, preference analysis and decision support, formal models, voting and collective decision making, conflict resolution in energy and environmental management, negotiation support systems and studies, online collaboration and competition, and market mechanisms and their users.
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Collective Preference and Choice

Lehrer, E. and S. Nitzan, 'Some General Results on the Metric Rationalization for Social Decision Rules,' [ournal ofEconomic Theory, 37(1), 1985, ... Nurmi, H., Voting Procedures under Uncertainty, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002.

Author: Shmuel Nitzan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521897259

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 255

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A study of the classical aggregation problems that arise in social choice theory, voting theory, and group decision-making under uncertainty.
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Multicriteria and Multiobjective Models for Risk Reliability and Maintenance Decision Analysis

Kirkwood CW, Sarin RK (1985) Ranking with Partial Information: A Method and an Application. Oper Res 33:38-48 Knowles JD, Corne DW (2000) Approximating ... Decision Sci 36(2):317-339 Nurmi H (2002) Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Adiel Teixeira de Almeida

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319179698

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 395

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This book integrates multiple criteria concepts and methods for problems within the Risk, Reliability and Maintenance (RRM) context. The concepts and foundations related to RRM are considered for this integration with multicriteria approaches. In the book, a general framework for building decision models is presented and this is illustrated in various chapters by discussing many different decision models related to the RRM context. The scope of the book is related to ways of how to integrate Applied Probability and Decision Making. In Applied Probability, this mainly includes: decision analysis and reliability theory, amongst other topics closely related to risk analysis and maintenance. In Decision Making, it includes a broad range of topics in MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) and MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding; also known as Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis). In addition to decision analysis, some of the topics related to Mathematical Programming area are briefly considered, such as multiobjective optimization, since methods related to these topics have been applied to the context of RRM. The book addresses an innovative treatment for the decision making in RRM, thereby improving the integration of fundamental concepts from the areas of both RRM and decision making. This is accomplished by presenting an overview of the literature on decision making in RRM. Some pitfalls of decision models when applying them to RRM in practice are discussed and guidance on overcoming these drawbacks is offered. The procedure enables multicriteria models to be built for the RRM context, including guidance on choosing an appropriate multicriteria method for a particular problem faced in the RRM context. The book also includes many research advances in these topics. Most of the multicriteria decision models that are described are specific applications that have been influenced by this research and the advances in this field. Multicriteria and Multiobjective Models for Risk, Reliability and Maintenance Decision Analysis is implicitly structured in three parts, with 12 chapters. The first part deals with MCDM/A concepts methods and decision processes. The second part presents the main concepts and foundations of RRM. Finally the third part deals with specific decision problems in the RRM context approached with MCDM/A models.
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The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice

“Are Qualified Majority Rules Special?” Public Choice 42(3): 257–272. Nitzan, S., and J. Paroush. 1984b. “The Significance of Independent Decisions in Uncertain Dichotomous Choice Situations. ... Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Roger D. Congleton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190469740

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 800

View: 128

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The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice provides a comprehensive overview of the research in economics, political science, law, and sociology that has generated considerable insight into the politics of democratic and authoritarian systems as well as the influence of different institutional frameworks on incentives and outcomes. The result is an improved understanding of public policy, public finance, industrial organization, and macroeconomics as the combination of political and economic analysis shed light on how various interests compete both within a given rules of the games and, at times, to change the rules. These volumes include analytical surveys, syntheses, and general overviews of the many subfields of public choice focusing on interesting, important, and at times contentious issues. Throughout the focus is on enhancing understanding how political and economic systems act and interact, and how they might be improved. Both volumes combine methodological analysis with substantive overviews of key topics. This first volume covers voting and elections; interest group competition and rent seeking, including corruption and various normative approaches to evaluating policies and politics. Throughout both volumes important analytical concepts and tools are discussed, including their application to substantive topics. Readers will gain increased understanding of rational choice and its implications for collective action; various explanations of voting, including economic and expressive; the role of taxation and finance in government dynamics; how trust and persuasion influence political outcomes; and how revolution, coups, and authoritarianism can be explained by the same set of analytical tools as enhance understanding of the various forms of democracy.
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The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice

“Are Qualified Majority Rules Special?” Public Choice 42(3): 257–272. Nitzan, S., and J. Paroush. 1984b. “The Significance of Independent Decisions in Uncertain Dichotomous Choice Situations. ... Voting Procedures under Uncertainty.

Author: Roger D. Congleton

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 9780190469733

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 984

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"This two-volume collection provides a comprehensive overview of the past seventy years of public choice research, written by experts in the fields surveyed. The individual chapters are more than simple surveys, but provide readers with both a sense of the progress made and puzzles that remain. Most are written with upper level undergraduate and graduate students in economics and political science in mind, but many are completely accessible to non-expert readers who are interested in Public Choice research. The two-volume set will be of broad interest to social scientists, policy analysts, and historians"--
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The Economics of the Good the Bad and the Ugly

Non-Conventional Preference Relations in Decision Making. Berlin et al.: Springer: 142–155. Nurmi, H. (2002), Voting Procedures under Uncertainty, Berlin et al.: Springer. Nurmi, H. (2006), Models of Political Economy, London and New ...

Author: Manfred J. Holler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429884351

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 260

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The highly praised Western, The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, has been used in many game-theory courses over the years and has also found its way into leading journals of this field. Using the rich material offered by this movie, alongside other elements from popular culture, literature and history, this book furthers this exploration into a fascinating area of economics. In his series of Schumpeter lectures, Manfred J. Holler uses his analysis of Sergio Leone’s movie as a starting point to argue that combinations of desires, secrets and second-mover advantages trigger conflicts but also allow for conflict resolution. Many people and organizations have a desire for secrecy, and this is often motivated by a desire to create a second-mover advantage, and by undercutting the second-mover advantage of others. This book demonstrates that the interaction of these three ingredients account for a large share of social problems and failures in politics and business but, somewhat paradoxically, can also help to overcome some of the problems that result by applying one or two of them in isolation. This book has been written for curious readers who want to see the world from a different perspective and who like simple mathematics alongside story telling. Its accessible approach means that it will be of use to students and academics alike, especially all those interested in decision making, game theory, and market entry.
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Models of Political Economy

Nash, J.F. (1996) Essays in Game Theory, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Niemi, R., Bjurulf, B. and Blewis, ... Nurmi, H. (2002) Voting Procedures under Uncertainty, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York: Springer-Verlag. Nurmi, H. (2003) Decision ...

Author: Hannu Nurmi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134338627

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

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Models of Political Economy will introduce students to the basic methodology of political economics. It covers all core theories as well as new developments including: decision theory game theory mechanism design games of asymmetric information. Hannu Nurmi's text will prove to be invaluable to all students who wish to understand this increasingly technical field.
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The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy

Inverted orders for monotone scoring rules. Discrete Applied Mathematics ... Manipulation of voting schemes: a general result. Econometrica, 41: 587–601. Nurmi, H. 2003. Voting Procedures under Uncertainty. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Author: Barry R. Weingast

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191563409

Category: Political Science

Page:

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Over its long lifetime, "political economy" has had many different meanings: the science of managing the resources of a nation so as to provide wealth to its inhabitants for Adam Smith; the study of how the ownership of the means of production influenced historical processes for Marx; the study of the inter-relationship between economics and politics for some twentieth-century commentators; and for others, a methodology emphasizing individual rationality (the economic or "public choice" approach) or institutional adaptation (the sociological version). This Handbook views political economy as a grand (if imperfect) synthesis of these various strands, treating political economy as the methodology of economics applied to the analysis of political behavior and institutions. This Handbook surveys the field of political economy, with 58 chapters ranging from micro to macro, national to international, institutional to behavioral, methodological to substantive. Chapters on social choice, constitutional theory, and public economics are set alongside ones on voters, parties and pressure groups, macroeconomics and politics, capitalism and democracy, and international political economy and international conflict.
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