Ways a World Might Be

Robert Stalnaker draws together in this volume the extent of his work in metaphysics. The central theme is the role of possible worlds in articulating our various metaphysical commitments.

Author: Robert Stalnaker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199251483

Category: Philosophy

Page: 287

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Robert Stalnaker draws together in this volume the extent of his work in metaphysics. The central theme is the role of possible worlds in articulating our various metaphysical commitments. The essays presented reflect on the nature of metaphysics, with two of the essays featured being published for the first time.
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The Blank Swan

Or rather, the assumption is that different states of the world, what the
metaphysicians call 'possible worlds', can be imagined beside the present ... The
world keeps changing, as well as our conceptions of how the world is and how it
might be.

Author: Elie Ayache

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470661763

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 496

View: 356

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"Elie Ayache is the only person to present arguments about The Black Swan and rare events that I had not thought about. He does what philosophical inquiry has always done: to go the extra mile and look at the world in a deeply philosophical way." Nassim Nicholas Taleb, PhD, author of The Black Swan, Distinguished Professor, New York University Polytechnic Institute & Principal, Universa Investments. "Elie Ayache has uniquely straddled the down-to-earth world of money and complex financial derivatives and the abstract world of the mind and philosophy. Insightful and insane in equal measures, this book is not an easy read. I wouldn't recommend this for holiday reading on the beach but perhaps for while sitting in front of a log fire with a large Scotch, or probably several.??? Paul Wilmott, author of Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Finance October 19th 1987 was a day of huge change for the global finance industry. On this day the stock market crashed, the Nobel Prize winning Black-Scholes formula failed and volatility smiles were born, and on this day Elie Ayache began his career, on the trading floor of the French Futures and Options Exchange. Experts everywhere sought to find a model for this event, and ways to simulate it in order to avoid a recurrence in the future, but the one thing that struck Elie that day was the belief that what actually happened on 19th October 1987 is simply non reproducible outside 19th October 1987 - you cannot reduce it to a chain of causes and effects, or even to a random generator, that can then be reproduced or represented in a theoretical framework. The Blank Swan is Elie's highly original treatise on the financial markets – presenting a totally revolutionary rethinking of derivative pricing and technology. It is not a diatribe against Nassim Taleb's The Black Swan, but criticises the whole background or framework of predictable and unpredictable events – white and black swans alike – , i.e. the very category of prediction. In this revolutionary book, Elie redefines the components of the technology needed to price and trade derivatives. Most importantly, and drawing on a long tradition of philosophy of the event from Henri Bergson to Gilles Deleuze, to Alain Badiou, and on a recent brand of philosophy of contingency, embodied by the speculative materialism of Quentin Meillassoux, Elie redefines the market itself against the common perceptions of orthodox financial theory, general equilibrium theory and the sociology of finance. This book will change the way that we think about derivatives and approach the market. If anything, derivatives should be renamed contingent claims, where contingency is now absolute and no longer derivative, and the market is just its medium. The book also establishes the missing link between quantitative modelling (no longer dependent on probability theory but on a novel brand of mathematics which Elie calls the mathematics of price) and the reality of the market."
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Unshadowed Thought

But if that idea proves implausible , as I think it will , there may be another way
with the phenomena . On a given occasion we can recognize ranges of different
ways words might say the world to be . We are prepared to recognize various ...

Author: Charles Travis

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 067400339X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 263

View: 418

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This book mounts a sustained attack on ideas that are dear to many practitioners of analytic philosophy. It rejects the idea that thoughts are essentially representational items whose content is independent of context. In doing so, it undermines the foundations of much contemporary philosophy of mind.
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The Philosophical Baby

This apparently useless behavior may be very functional from a broader
evolutionary perspective. Think about the evolutionary ... We can consider
different ways the world might be, not just the ways the world actually is. As adults
our causal ...

Author: Alison Gopnik

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 9781429959445

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 543

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For most of us, having a baby is the most profound, intense, and fascinating experience of our lives. Now scientists and philosophers are starting to appreciate babies, too. The last decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of infants and young children. Scientists used to believe that babies were irrational, and that their thinking and experience were limited. Recently, they have discovered that babies learn more, create more, care more, and experience more than we could ever have imagined. And there is good reason to believe that babies are actually smarter, more thoughtful, and even more conscious than adults. This new science holds answers to some of the deepest and oldest questions about what it means to be human. A new baby's captivated gaze at her mother's face lays the foundations for love and morality. A toddler's unstoppable explorations of his playpen hold the key to scientific discovery. A three-year-old's wild make-believe explains how we can imagine the future, write novels, and invent new technologies. Alison Gopnik - a leading psychologist and philosopher, as well as a mother - explains the groundbreaking new psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical developments in our understanding of very young children, transforming our understanding of how babies see the world, and in turn promoting a deeper appreciation for the role of parents.
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The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Language

A possible world is a complete way the world might be. Thus, the actual world is
one of the possible worlds. In modern semantics, the notion of a possible world (
and similar notions, such as Carnap's state-descriptions) has been used in ...

Author: Manuel Garcia-Carpintero

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472578228

Category: Philosophy

Page: 293

View: 254

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Beginning with works of Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein, The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Language provides a critical history of the core concepts in the area. From generative syntax and formal semantics to broader philosophical issues such as intentional contexts, theories of meaning and context dependence, a well-known team of experts offer insightful analysis into some of the fundamental questions asked by the philosophy of language. The result is a comprehensive introduction, featuring a series of research tools, including an A to Z of key terms and concepts, a detailed list of resources and a fully annotated bibliography. For students and scholars looking to better understand the questions and debates informing the subject, this is an essential study tool.
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Thinking about Acting

I will ask how that can be done in general ( in any cognitive agent ) , and more
specifically how it is done in human beings . A common answer ... Situation
tokens are " total " ways the world might be , that is , complete possible worlds .
Practical ...

Author: John L. Pollock

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195304810

Category: Education

Page: 267

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This book aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real, resource-bounded, agents. Such decision making must be based on objective probabilities rather than subjective probabilities, and cannot be done by choosing single actions with maximal expected values. Actions must be chosen as parts of plans, and plans must be evaluated in the context of other plans.
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Processes Beliefs and Questions

And these ways the world might be are called possible worlds. So what goes on
in linguistic communication is that the speaker (or more neutrally the message
source) has in mind a representation of a set of possible worlds and the result of
 ...

Author: S. Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401576680

Category: Philosophy

Page: 231

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SECTION I In 1972, Donald Davison and Gilbert Hannan wrote in the introduction to the volume Semantics of Natural Language: "The success of linguistics in treating natural languages as formal ~yntactic systems has aroused the interest of a number of linguists in a parallel or related development of semantics. For the most part quite independently, many philosophers and logicians have recently been applying formal semantic methods to structures increasingly like natural languages. While differences in training, method and vocabulary tend to veil the fact, philosophers and linguists are converging, it seems, on a common set of interrelated problems. " Davidson and Harman called for an interdisciplinary dialogue of linguists, philosophers and logicians on the semantics of natural language, and during the last ten years such an enterprise has proved extremely fruitful. Thanks to the cooperative effort in these several fields, the last decade has brought about striking progress in our understanding of the semantics of natural language. This work on semantics has typically paid little attention to psychological aspects of meaning. Thus, psychologists or computer scientists working on artificial intelligence were not invited to join the forces in the influential introduction of Semantics of Natural Language. No doubt it was felt that while psychological aspects of language are important in their own right, they are not relevant to our immediate semantic concerns. In the last few years, several linguists and logicians have come to question the fundamental anti-psychological assumptions underlying their theorizing.
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How the World Computes

Along the way, he takes note of an obvious fact in the bigger scheme of things
regarding human intelligence: grownups were once children; this leads him to
imagine what a machine analogue of childhood might be. In this paper, I'll
discuss ...

Author: Barry S. Cooper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642308703

Category: Computers

Page: 756

View: 394

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Turing Centenary Conference and the 8th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2012, held in Cambridge, UK, in June 2012. The 53 revised papers presented together with 6 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected with an acceptance rate of under 29,8%. The CiE 2012 Turing Centenary Conference will be remembered as a historic event in the continuing development of the powerful explanatory role of computability across a wide spectrum of research areas. The papers presented at CiE 2012 represent the best of current research in the area, and forms a fitting tribute to the short but brilliant trajectory of Alan Mathison Turing. Both the conference series and the association promote the development of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science and applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology, and also including the promotion of related non-scientific fields such as philosophy and history of computing.
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Thomas Aquinas on God and Evil

For them, malum signified anything we might think of as bad, regardless of
degree. ... By “possible world” Plantinga means a way the world might have been
; so Plantinga will say that there are many possible worlds— meaning many
different ...

Author: Brian Davies

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199831456

Category: Religion

Page: 192

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Brian Davies offers the first in-depth study of Saint Thomas Aquinas's thoughts on God and evil, revealing that Aquinas's thinking about God and evil can be traced through his metaphysical philosophy, his thoughts on God and creation, and his writings about Christian revelation and the doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation. Davies first gives an introduction to Aquinas's philosophical theology, as well as a nuanced analysis of the ways in which Aquinas's writings have been considered over time. For hundreds of years scholars have argued that Aquinas's views on God and evil were original and different from those of his contemporaries. Davies shows that Aquinas's views were by modern standards very original, but that in their historical context they were more traditional than many scholars since have realized. Davies also provides insight into what we can learn from Aquinas's philosophy. Thomas Aquinas on God and Evil is a clear and engaging guide for anyone who struggles with the relation of God and theology to the problem of evil.
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Science and the Eastern Orthodox Church

We also would not have the growing success of our technology if how it works
was not a possible way things can work. ... There might be alternative physics
that open up and reveal possible alternate ways the world could be rather than
just a ...

Author: Daniel Buxhoeveden

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9781409405757

Category: Religion

Page: 217

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Science and the Eastern Orthodox Church explores core theological and philosophical notions and contentious topics such as evolution from the vantage point of science, Orthodox theology, and the writings of popular recent Orthodox critics as well as supporters. Examining what science is and why Eastern Orthodox Christians should be concerned about the topic, contributors analyze the historical contingencies that contribute to the relationship of the Orthodox Church and science both in the past and present. Drawing together leading Orthodox scientists, theologians, and historians confronting some of the critical issues and uses of modern science, this book will be useful for students, academics and clergy who want to develop a greater understanding of how to relate Orthodoxy to science.
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Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory

... definitions of species operate within a frame of “how we think the world might
be structured.” That is, they define species in terms of the theoretical entities that
might be supposed to participate in some evolutionary process of differentiation.

Author: Quentin D. Wheeler

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231506625

Category: Science

Page: 256

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No question in theoretical biology has been more perennially controversial or perplexing than "What is a species?" Recent advances in phylogenetic theory have called into question traditional views of species and spawned many concepts that are currently competing for general acceptance. Once the subject of esoteric intellectual exercises, the "species problem" has emerged as a critically important aspect of global environmental concerns. Completion of an inventory of biodiversity, success in conservation, predictive knowledge about life on earth, management of material resources, formulation of scientifically credible public policy and law, and more depend upon our adoption of the "right" species concept. Quentin D. Wheeler and Rudolf Meier present a debate among top systematic biology theorists to consider the strengths and weaknesses of five competing concepts. Debaters include (1) Ernst Mayr (Biological Species Concept), (2) Rudolf Meier and Rainer Willmann (Hennigian species concept), (3) Brent Mishler and Edward Theriot (one version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), (4) Quentin Wheeler and Norman Platnick (a competing version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), and (5) E. O. Wiley and Richard Mayden (the Evolutionary Species Concept). Each author or pair of authors contributes three essays to the debate: first, a position paper with an opening argument for their respective concept of species; second, a counterpoint view of the weakness of competing concepts; and, finally, a rebuttal of the attacks made by other authors. This unique and lively debate format makes the comparative advantages and disadvantages of competing species concepts clear and accessible in a single book for the first time, bringing to light numerous controversies in phylogenetic theory, taxonomy, and philosophy of science that are important to a wide audience. Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory will meet a need among scientists, conservationists, policy-makers, and students of biology for an explicit, critical evaluation of a large and complex literature on species. An important reference for professionals, the book will prove especially useful in classrooms and discussion groups where students may find a concise, lucid entrée to one of the most complex questions facing science and society.
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The Image in Mind

There are ever so many ways that a world might be; and one of these many ways
is the way that this world is. (Lewis, 1986, 1–2) Given Lewis's outlook, in this
world, with our current laws of nature, perhaps iron and cows cannot be
transparent ...

Author: Charles Taliaferro

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781441148827

Category: Religion

Page: 224

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A philosophical inquiry into the strengths and weaknesses of theism and naturalism in accounting for the emergence of consciousness, the visual imagination and aesthetic values. The authors begin by offering an account of modern scientific practice which gives a central place to the visual imagination and aesthetic values. They then move to test the explanatory power of naturalism and theism in accounting for consciousness and the very visual imagination and aesthetic values that lie behind and define modern science. Taliaferro and Evans argue that evolutionary biology alone is insufficient to account for consciousness, the visual imagination and aesthetic values. Insofar as naturalism is compelled to go beyond evolutionary biology, it does not fare as well as theism in terms of explanatory power.
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World Politics

The focus has been almost entirely empirical: that is to say, it has centred on what
can broadly be seen as the realities of ... about the way the world ought to work or
might work as they are about the ways in which it has worked and does work.

Author: Brian Hocking

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317903833

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

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A quick, step-by-step guide to developing the practical negotiating skills that every business manager needs. The authors cover preparation, strategy development, getting started, building understanding, bargaining, and closing the deal. Managers learn effective tools for negotiating within their own groups, including organizing successful meetings and techniques for building consensus. What are the Most Common and Costly Mistakes Made by Ineffective Negotiating and How Can These Mistakes be Avoided? What are the Underlying Principles and Stages Which Govern the Negotiation Process? How Should We Manage Interpersonal Negotiations and What Are the Strategies and Tactics Used by Effective Negotiating Teams? What are the Different Approaches to Multi-Party Negotiations and Which Approach is Most Effective for Negotiating Across Cultures? The Essence of Management Series is an invaluable reference source for managers on short courses; for MBA and undergraduate students who want to get quickly to the heart of the subject; and as reference material for managers and aspiring managers wishing to improve their knowledge and skills.
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Social Movements for Global Democracy

Capitalists have done this well, and they have not been challenged as effectively
as they might be. Those advocating for more democratic forms of globalization
must find ways to better communicate their visions of how the world might be ...

Author: Jackie Smith

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801896866

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

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This groundbreaking study sheds new light on the struggle to define the course of globalization. Synthesizing extensive research on transnational activism, Social Movements for Global Democracy shows how transnational networks of social movement activists—democratic globalizers—have worked to promote human rights and ecological sustainability over the predominant neoliberal system of economic integration. Using case studies of recent and ongoing campaigns for global justice, Jackie Smith provides valuable insight into whether and how these activists are succeeding. She argues that democratic globalizers could be more effective if they presented a united front organized around a global vision that places human rights and ecological stability foremost and if they were to directly engage governments and the United Nations. Illuminating the deep-seated struggles between two visions of globalization, Smith reveals a network of activists who have long been working to democratize the global political system. -- Dana M. Williams
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Rethinking the Good

But if one believes, as many do, that Expected Utility Theory can be plausibly
extended to apply to claims about values, ... or prospects that individuals might
face or choose, and ways the world might be or states of nature.3 Corresponding
to ...

Author: Larry S. Temkin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190208653

Category: Philosophy

Page: 640

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In choosing between moral alternatives -- choosing between various forms of ethical action -- we typically make calculations of the following kind: A is better than B; B is better than C; therefore A is better than C. These inferences use the principle of transitivity and are fundamental to many forms of practical and theoretical theorizing, not just in moral and ethical theory but in economics. Indeed they are so common as to be almost invisible. What Larry Temkin's book shows is that, shockingly, if we want to continue making plausible judgments, we cannot continue to make these assumptions. Temkin shows that we are committed to various moral ideals that are, surprisingly, fundamentally incompatible with the idea that "better than" can be transitive. His book develops many examples where value judgments that we accept and find attractive, are incompatible with transitivity. While this might seem to leave two options -- reject transitivity, or reject some of our normative commitments in order to keep it -- Temkin is neutral on which path to follow, only making the case that a choice is necessary, and that the cost either way will be high. Temkin's book is a very original and deeply unsettling work of skeptical philosophy that mounts an important new challenge to contemporary ethics.
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Inconsistency Asymmetry and Non Locality

Inconsistent theories, then, may be taken to provide particularly strong support for
the importance of 'modelbased' ... Sometimes scientists do seem to be interested
in global representations of ways the world might be, and in such a case a ...

Author: Mathias Frisch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199883776

Category: Science

Page: 222

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Mathias Frisch provides the first sustained philosophical discussion of conceptual problems in classical particle-field theories. Part of the book focuses on the problem of a satisfactory equation of motion for charged particles interacting with electromagnetic fields. As Frisch shows, the standard equation of motion results in a mathematically inconsistent theory, yet there is no fully consistent and conceptually unproblematic alternative theory. Frisch describes in detail how the search for a fundamental equation of motion is partly driven by pragmatic considerations (like simplicity and mathematical tractability) that can override the aim for full consistency. The book also offers a comprehensive review and criticism of both the physical and philosophical literature on the temporal asymmetry exhibited by electromagnetic radiation fields, including Einstein's discussion of the asymmetry and Wheeler and Feynman's influential absorber theory of radiation. Frisch argues that attempts to derive the asymmetry from thermodynamic or cosmological considerations fail and proposes that we should understand the asymmetry as due to a fundamental causal constraint. The book's overarching philosophical thesis is that standard philosophical accounts that strictly identify scientific theories with a mathematical formalism and a mapping function specifying the theory's ontology are inadequate, since they permit neither inconsistent yet genuinely successful theories nor thick causal notions to be part of fundamental physics.
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The Revolutionary Kant

Quine rejected the claim that we can separate the semantic and the factual
aspects of judgment in that way, but his nonstandard empiricism is of no help to
Kant. More pertinently it might be asked why we should assume that “the way the
world ...

Author: Graham Bird

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 9780812698787

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

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The Revolutionary Kant offers a new appreciation of Kant’s classic, arguing that Kant's reform of philosophy was far more radical than has been previously understood. The book examines his proposed revolutionary reform — to abandon traditional metaphysics and point philosophy in a new direction — and contends that critics have misrepresented conflicts between Kant and his predecessors. Kant, Bird argues, was not a flawed innovator but an advocate of a new philosophical project, one that began to be appreciated only in the twentieth century.
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New Interchange Teacher s Edition 3

Write down two other ways the world might be affected by computers . 9
GRAMMAR FOCUS Describing the future ® Use present continuous , " will , " or "
be going to " for future events or situations . They're coming out with a new
computer .

Author: Jack C. Richards

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521628385

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 226

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-- Students' Book -- Workbook.
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Uneconomic Economics and the Crisis of the Model World

... assurance that no crisis would occur, but as a forecast of what could be
expected conditional on a crisis not occurring'. ... throughout the book: to highlight
how these very different ways of visualising the world lead to equally different
ways in ...

Author: M. Watson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137385499

Category: Political Science

Page: 108

View: 370

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What has gone wrong with economics? Economists now routinely devise highly sophisticated abstract models that score top marks for theoretical rigour but are clearly divorced from observable activities in the current economy. This creates an 'uneconomic economics', where models explain relationships in blackboard rather than real-life markets.
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Situation Theory and Its Applications Volume 2

Either some notion of explicit representation is invoked , whereby a distinct
category of representations is introduced together with an assumed "
interpretation ” , or appeal is made to certain modal alternatives : ways the world
might have been ...

Author: Jean Mark Gawron

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language (CSLI)

ISBN: 0937073717

Category: Computers

Page: 638

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Situation theory is the result of an interdisciplinary effort to create a full-fledged theory of information. Created by scholars and scientists from cognitive science, computer science, AI, linguistics, logic, philosophy, and mathematics, the theory is forging a common set of tools for the analysis of phenomena from all these fields. This volume presents work that evolved out of the Second Conference on Situation Theory and its Applications. Twenty-six essays exhibit the wide range of the theory, covering such topics as natural language semantics, philosophical issues about information, mathematical applications, and the visual representation of information in computer systems.Jon Barwise is a professor of philosophy, mathematics, and logic at Indiana University in Bloomington. Jean Mark Gawron is a researcher at SRI International and a consultant at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. Gordon Plotkin is a professor of theoretical computer science at the University of Edinburgh. Syun Tutiya is in the philosophy department at Chiba University in Japan.
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