X Ray Absorption and X Ray Emission Spectroscopy

This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid ...

Author: Jeroen A. van Bokhoven

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118844236

Category: NATURE

Page: 890

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During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-Ray Absorption and X-ray Emission Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications: Combines the theory, instrumentation and applications of x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies which offer unique diagnostics to study almost any object in the Universe. Is the go-to reference book in the subject for all researchers across multi-disciplines since intense beams from modern sources have revolutionized x-ray science in recent years Is relevant to students, postdocurates and researchers working on x-rays and related synchrotron sources and applications in materials, physics, medicine, environment/geology, and biomedical materials
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X ray Absorption Spectroscopy for the Chemical and Materials Sciences

This practical guide helps investigators choose the right experiment, carry it out properly and analyze the data to give the best reliable result.

Author: John Evans

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119990918

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 401

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A clear-cut introduction to the technique and applications of x-ray absorption spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is being applied to a widening set of disciplines. Applications started with solid state physics and grew to materials science, chemistry, biochemistry and geology. Now, they cut across engineering materials, environmental science and national heritage — providing very detailed and useful information facilitating understanding and development of materials. This practical guide helps investigators choose the right experiment, carry it out properly and analyze the data to give the best reliable result. It gives readers insights to extract what they need from the world of large-scale experimental facilities like synchrotrons, which seem distant to many laboratory scientists. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for the Chemical and Materials Sciences seeks to educate readers about the strengths and limitations of the techniques, including their accessibility. Presented in six sections, it offers chapters that cover: an introduction to X-ray absorption fine structure XAFS; the basis of XAFS; X-ray sources; experimental methods; data analysis and simulation methods; and case studies. A no-nonsense introduction to the technique and applications of x-ray absorption spectroscopy Features Questions to support learning through the book Relevant to all working on synchrotron sources and applications in physics, materials, environment/geology and biomedical materials Four-color representation allows easy interpretation of images and data for the reader X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for the Chemical and Materials Sciences is aimed at Masters-level and PhD students embarking on X-ray spectroscopy projects as well as scientists in areas of materials characterization.
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High Resolution XAS XES

High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts covers the latest developments in X-ray light sources, detectors, crystal spectrometers, and photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy techniques.

Author: Jacinto Sa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466592988

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 247

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Photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy is an emerging approach to characterize the electronic structure of catalysts and enzymes, and it is either installed or planned for intense synchrotron beam lines and X-ray free electron lasers. This type of spectroscopy requires high-energy resolution spectroscopy not only for the incoming X-ray beam but also, in most applications, for the detection of the outgoing photons. Thus, the use of high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometers whose resolving power ΔE/E is typically about 10–4, is mandatory. High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts covers the latest developments in X-ray light sources, detectors, crystal spectrometers, and photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy techniques. It also addresses photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy applications for the study of catalytic systems, highlighting hard X-ray measurements primarily due to probe high penetration, enabling in situ studies. This first-of-its-kind book: Discusses high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in terms of time-resolved and surface enhancement Supplies an understanding of catalytic reactivity essential for capitalizing on core level X-ray spectroscopy at fourth-generation light sources (XFELs) Describes all spectrometers developed to perform core level X-ray spectroscopy, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each Details methods to elucidate aspects of catalysts under working conditions, such as active sites and molecule adsorption Introduces theoretical calculations of spectra and explores biological as well as heterogeneous catalysts Complete with guidelines and warnings for the use of this type of spectroscopy, High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of this exciting field.
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X Ray Spectroscopy

The new edition includes topics that have recently become important, for example, the X-ray laser, appearance potential spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation and EXAFS of high-Tc superconducting materials.

Author: Bipin K. Agarwal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540386681

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 421

View: 254

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X-ray spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool in research and in industrial laboratories. It is used in the study of metals, semiconductors, amorphous solids, liquids and gases. This comprehensive presentation develops the subject from its basic principles and relates the theory to experimental observations. The new edition includes topics that have recently become important, for example, the X-ray laser, appearance potential spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation and EXAFS of high-Tc superconducting materials. A thorough introduction, up to research level, isprovided to EXAFS, which has seen rapid development in the past few years. This textbook conveniently presents the principles, applications and current techniques of X-ray spectroscopy, which makes it ideal for graduate students beginning research involving x-ray spectroscopy.
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Advances in X Ray Spectroscopy

The book is a collection of papers written by specialists in X-ray spectroscopy and pays tribute to the scientific work of Prof. Yvette Cauchois. The text is organized into four parts.

Author: C. Bonnelle

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483155531

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 913

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Advances in X-Ray Spectroscopy covers topics relevant to the advancement of X-ray spectroscopy technology. The book is a collection of papers written by specialists in X-ray spectroscopy and pays tribute to the scientific work of Prof. Yvette Cauchois. The text is organized into four parts. Part I covers the analysis of X-ray transitions between atomic levels and relativistic theories of X-ray emission satellites and electron BremsStrahlung. Part II reviews the means provided by X-ray spectroscopy for the determination of the electronic structure of solids, while Part III discusses methods of obtaining types of information from X-ray spectra. The fourth part discusses techniques available for studies in the field. Researchers and professionals dealing with X-ray technology will find this book a great source of information regarding its development.
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Direct Comparison of the X Ray Emission and Absorption of Cerium Oxide

Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). The XES spectra were collected using a Specs electron gun for the excitation and the XES 350 grating monochromator and channel plate system from Scienta as the photon detection.

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ISBN: OCLC:1065779083

Category:

Page: 10

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Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). The XES spectra were collected using a Specs electron gun for the excitation and the XES 350 grating monochromator and channel plate system from Scienta as the photon detection. Spectra were collected in 'normal mode, ' where the electron gun kinetic energy (KE) and the energy position of the center of the channel plate were both fixed and the energy distribution in the photon (hv) spectrum was derived from the intensities distributed across the channel plate detector in the energy dispersal direction. The polycrystalline Ce sample was oxidized by exposure to air at ambient pressures. After introduction to the ultra-high vacuum system, the oxidized sample was bombarded with Ar, to clean the topmost surface region and stabilize the surface and near surface regions. Although CeO2 would be the thermodynamically preferred composition in an oxygen rich environment, the combination of a vacuum environment and ion etching may have driven the near surface region into a Ce2O3 stoichiometry. XES data collection occurred with the sample at or near room temperature. The base pressure of the system was 3 x 10−1° torr, but the pressure changed depending the energy and current of the electron gun. For example, with the XES measurements at KE = 3KeV, the pressure was approximately 8 to 9 x 10−1° torr and the excitation current to the sample was typically 0.01 mA. More detail of the sample preparation and analysis can be found in Reference 1. The XAS experiments were performed at Beamline 8 of the Advance Light Source, as part of a larger collaboration. The ex situ sample used at the ALS was prepared in a fashion similar to that described above. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), have been used to investigate the photon emission and absorption associated with the Ce3d52 and Ce3d32 core-levels in CeOxide. A comparison of the two processes and their spectra will be made. Recently, we reported the observation of a very strong resonant effect in the Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of CeOxide. It has now become apparent that there is a utility in a direct comparison of the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of similarly prepared CeOxide samples. That comparison is made in this Brief Report/Comment.
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Reply to Comment On Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by X ray Absorption and Resonant X ray Emission Spectroscopy

In Ref. [1], we present and analyze experimental high resolution x-ray emission spectra (XES) of liquid water which exhibit a splitting of the 1b1 line into two components.

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ISBN: OCLC:727237726

Category:

Page:

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In Ref. [1], we present and analyze experimental high resolution x-ray emission spectra (XES) of liquid water which exhibit a splitting of the 1b1 line into two components. We also suggest a qualitative model to explain the experimental spectra which, even though tentative (as clearly stated in the summary of Ref. [1]), is able to explain ALL available experimental data. In the preceding Comment, Pettersson et al. [3]claim that a spectrum with two similarly sharp 1b1 features both from a dissociated product (d2) and from the intact molecule (d1) would be"unphysical and unsubstantiated" since"the path connecting initial and final structure" is not taken into account. In the meantime, we have collected new data [2], which further support and strengthen our model.
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X Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Semiconductors

This book provides a comprehensive review and valuable reference guide for both XAS newcomers and experts involved in semiconductor materials research.

Author: Claudia S. Schnohr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662443620

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 361

View: 258

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X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique with which to probe the properties of matter, equally applicable to the solid, liquid and gas phases. Semiconductors are arguably our most technologically-relevant group of materials given they form the basis of the electronic and photonic devices that now so widely permeate almost every aspect of our society. The most effective utilisation of these materials today and tomorrow necessitates a detailed knowledge of their structural and vibrational properties. Through a series of comprehensive reviews, this book demonstrates the versatility of XAS for semiconductor materials analysis and presents important research activities in this ever growing field. A short introduction of the technique, aimed primarily at XAS newcomers, is followed by twenty independent chapters dedicated to distinct groups of materials. Topics span dopants in crystalline semiconductors and disorder in amorphous semiconductors to alloys and nanometric material as well as in-situ measurements of the effects of temperature and pressure. Summarizing research in their respective fields, the authors highlight important experimental findings and demonstrate the capabilities and applications of the XAS technique. This book provides a comprehensive review and valuable reference guide for both XAS newcomers and experts involved in semiconductor materials research.
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Investigation of the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transition of Chemical Solution Deposited Pb Zr30Ti70 O3 Thin Films by Soft X ray Absorption and Soft X ray Emission Spectroscopy

This rutile phase transforms into the perovskite phase upon increasing annealing temperature. These results are discussed in the framework of current microscopic models of the PZT (111) texture selection.

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Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:727212894

Category:

Page:

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Chemical solution deposited (CSD) complex oxide thin films attract considerable interest in various emerging fields as for example, fuel cells, ferroelectric random access memories or coated conductors. In the present paper the results of soft-x-ray spectroscopy between 100 eV and 500 eV on the amorphous to crystalline phase transition of ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O3 (PZT) thin films are presented. Five CSD samples derived from the same wafer coated with a PZT film pyrolyzed at 350 C were heat treated at different temperatures between 400 C and 700 C. At first the sample were morphologically and electrically characterized. Subsequently the soft-x-ray absorption and emission experiments were performed at the undulator beamline 8.0 of the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Soft-x-ray absorption spectra were acquired for the Ti L{sub 2,3-}, O K-, and C K-edge thresholds by using simultaneously the total electron yield (TEY) and total fluorescence yield (TFY) detection methods. For two samples, annealed at 400 C and 700 C, respectively, the resonant inelastic soft-x-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) was applied for various excitation energies near the Ti L-, O K-edges. We observed clear evidence of a rutile phase at untypically low temperatures. This rutile phase transforms into the perovskite phase upon increasing annealing temperature. These results are discussed in the framework of current microscopic models of the PZT (111) texture selection.
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Feasibility of Valence to Core X ray Emission Spectroscopy for Tracking Transient Species

X-ray spectroscopies, when combined in laser-pump, X-ray-probe measurement schemes, can be powerful tools for tracking the electronic and geometric structural changes that occur during the course of a photoinitiated chemical reaction.

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Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:957110024

Category:

Page: 8

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X-ray spectroscopies, when combined in laser-pump, X-ray-probe measurement schemes, can be powerful tools for tracking the electronic and geometric structural changes that occur during the course of a photoinitiated chemical reaction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is considered an established technique for such measurements, and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of the strongest core-to-core emission lines (K[alpha] and K[beta]) is now being utilized. Flux demanding valence-to-core XES promises to be an important addition to the time-resolved spectroscopic toolkit. Here In this paper we present measurements and density functional theory calculations on laser-excited, solution-phase ferrocyanide that demonstrate the feasibility of valence-to-core XES for time-resolved experiments. Lastly, we discuss technical improvements that will make valence-to-core XES a practical pump-probe technique.
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Soft X Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides

The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:873809285

Category:

Page: 47

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The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.
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Ultrafast X ray Spectroscopy of Heme Proteins

Mots-clés de l'auteur: Proteins ; Myoglobin ; Time-resolved ; X-ray Emission Spectroscopy ; X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Free electron laser ; femtosecond ; Spin Dynamics ; Heme proteins.

Author: Dominik Kinschel

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1143331345

Category:

Page: 165

View: 807

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Mots-clés de l'auteur: Proteins ; Myoglobin ; Time-resolved ; X-ray Emission Spectroscopy ; X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Free electron laser ; femtosecond ; Spin Dynamics ; Heme proteins.
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Synchrotron Radiation Applications

This is a research-level review volume. It presents both the fundamentals and the advanced research results, covering most part of important aspects of synchrotron radiation applications.

Author: Zhang Xinyi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789813227682

Category: Science

Page: 668

View: 512

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This is a research-level review volume. It presents both the fundamentals and the advanced research results, covering most part of important aspects of synchrotron radiation applications. Among the broad subjects of synchrotron radiation applications, as the main content of this book we have applications in VUV, soft X-rays, hard X-rays and XFEL (X-ray free electron laser) and important applications by various synchrotron-based techniques and methods, such as ARPES (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy), VUV photo-ionization spectroscopy, X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure, X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray excited optical luminescence, imaging and high pressure techniques. Contents: Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Study Utilizing the Synchrotron Radiation (Yan Zhang, Dawei Shen, and Donglai Feng) Synchrotron-Based VUV Photoionization Mass Spectrometry in Combustion Chemistry Research (Nils Hansen, Bin Yang, and Tina Kasper) Developments on Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (Qiyun Xie and Xiaoshan Wu) Structural Biology and Synchrotron Radiation (Zihe Rao and Zhiyong Lou) Fluorescence Detected XAS — Unconventional Applications (Hiroyuki Oyanagi) The Application of X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy in Functional Materials (Zhihu Sun, Xinyi Zhang, and Shiqiang Wei) Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Its Applications (Zhonghua Wu and Xueqing Xing) Crystal-Based X-Ray Medical Imaging Using Synchrotron Radiation and Its Future Prospect (Masami Ando, Naoki Sunaguchi, Yongjin Sung, Daisuke Shimao, Jong-Ki Kim, Gang Li, Yoshifumi Suzuki, Tetsuya Yuasa, Kensaku Mori, Shu Ichihara and Rajiv Gupta) X-Ray Imaging and Its Applications (Tiqiao Xiao and Honglan Xie) Synchrotron Radiation Applications in Medicine (Yifeng Peng, Liangqi Wang, Chenglin Liu, Alberto Bravin, Gang Li, Shaoliang Chen, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang and Xinyi Zhang) Synchrotron Radiation Applications on High-Pressure Research (Bo Zou, Kai Wang, Shourui Li and Guangtian Zou) X-Ray Excited Optical Luminescence and Its Applications (Lijia Liu and Xuhui Sun) A Compact X-Ray Free-Electron Laser: SACLA (Hitoshi Tanaka, Takashi Tanaka, Kei Sawada, Makina Yabashi, and Tetsuya Ishikawa) Femtosecond Imaging of Single Particles and Molecules Using X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers (Andrew V Martin and N Duane Loh) Readership: Graduate students and professionals working on synchrotron radiation. Keywords: Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES);Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI);Combustion;Detactor Development;Free-Electron Laser;High Pressure;Medical Imaging;Nanomaterials;Photoemission Spectroscopy;Protein Crystallography;Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX);Single Particles and Molecules;Small Angle X-Ray Scattering;Strongly Correlated Materials;Surface X-Ray Diffraction;Synchrotron Radiation Applications;Table Top X-Ray Source;VUV Photoionization Mass Spectrometry;X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS);X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS);X-Ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL);X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)Review: Key Features: The book contains the latest synchrotron-based techniques and research results All contributors are specialists or leading scientists in their fields The book includes new techniques and methods that will potentially get wider applications in various disciplines
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